Common variant genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have, to date, identified >24 risk loci for Parkinson's disease (PD). To discover additional loci, we carried out a GWAS comparing 6,476 PD cases with 302,042 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with a recent study of over 13,000 PD cases and 95,000 controls at 9,830 overlapping variants. We then tested 35 loci (P < 1 × 10−6) in a replication cohort of 5,851 cases and 5,866 controls. We identified 17 novel risk loci (P < 5 × 10−8) in a joint analysis of 26,035 cases and 403,190 controls. We used a neurocentric strategy to assign candidate risk genes to the loci. We identified protein-altering or cis–expression quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL) variants in linkage disequilibrium with the index variant in 29 of the 41 PD loci. These results indicate a key role for autophagy and lysosomal biology in PD risk, and suggest potential new drug targets for PD.
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We thank all of the subjects who donated their time and biological samples to be a part of this study. Funding details and additional acknowledgments are provided in Supplementary Note 1.
D.C., J.H., F.C., G.A.K., G.A., B.B., M.S., T.W.B., T.R.B., and R.R.G. are employees of Genentech, a member of the Roche group. M.v.d.B. was employed by Genentech when the study was carried out. I.B.H. was employed by 23andMe Inc. when the study was carried out. Members of the 23andMe Research Team and D.H. are employees of 23andMe Inc. M.A.N. also consults for Illumina Inc., the Michael J. Fox Foundation, and University of California Healthcare.
Supplementary Note 1, Supplementary Figures 1–7, Supplementary Tables 2, 3, 7, 8, 11 (PDF 4728 kb)
Enrichment statistics for PD heritability across 24 annotations. (XLSX 53 kb)
Candidate PD associations with P < 1 × 10−6 in the discovery meta-analysis (XLSX 36 kb)
Supplementary Table 5: NeuroX and joint meta-analysis association statistics for loci with P < 1 × 10−6 in the discovery meta-analysis
Grayed out rows represent weaker proxies that were not included in the main manuscript. No suitable proxies were available for rs62333164 and rs4657041. (XLSX 41 kb)
Variants with regulomeDB scores > 3 that are in LD with novel PD-associated index SNPs (XLSX 46 kb)
For PD associated regions with significant cis-eQTLs (as displayed in Figure 3), the brain and nonbrain tissue with the most significant p-value is listed for each PD loci. “Risk expression” considers the direction of expression the risk allele is associated with. (XLSX 44 kb)
Genes within 250 kb of PD-associated loci with evidence of coexpression and/or protein–protein interactions (XLSX 46 kb)
General gene-set enrichment analysis of PD associations (XLSX 343 kb)
All protein-coding genes within 250 kb of PD-associated loci used as input for STRING analysis (XLSX 34 kb)
Minimum P values for the 42 genes in the lysosomal pathway for which SNPs tested in this meta-analysis were within 250 kb (XLSX 43 kb)
Minimum P values for 117 genes in the mitochondrial pathway for which SNPs tested in this meta-analysis were within 250 kb. (XLSX 45 kb)
Minimum P values for 25 genes in the autophagy pathway for which SNPs tested in this meta-analysis were within 250 kb. (XLSX 41 kb)
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Chang, D., Nalls, M., Hallgrímsdóttir, I. et al. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 17 new Parkinson's disease risk loci. Nat Genet 49, 1511–1516 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3955
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