(a) Oxidoreductase capacity was measured with MTT assays performed on equal numbers of growth-arrested cells in the absence of serum, and MTT signals were normalized to total cell number per well. Consistent with GO results, A38Lg possessed higher oxidoreductase activity. n = 4 technical replicates; error bars, s.d. P values were calculated by two-tailed t test. (b) NADPH/NADP levels were measured on equal numbers of growth-arrested cells. More NADPH per 1 million cells was detected in A38Lg. n = 2 biological replicates; error bars, s.d. P values were calculated by two-tailed t test. (c) A38Per and A38Lg maintained well- or poorly differentiated morphology in patient tissues and across three separate in vitro culture conditions as indicated. (d) IF performed on fixed tissues from the primary tumor showed loss of E-cadherin with gain of vimentin in the precursor subclone that seeded A38Lg, consistent with EMT. (e,f) RNAi knockdown of KRAS (e) blocked 3D tumor formation in suspension assays (f) more efficiently in A38Per than A38Lg. n = 4 technical replicates; error bars, s.d. P values were calculated by two-tailed t test. Scale bars, 400 μm.