Figure 4 : Explosive male-lineage expansions of the last 15,000 years.

From: Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences

Figure 4

Each circle represents a phylogenetic node whose branching pattern suggests rapid expansion. The horizontal axis indicates the timings of the expansions, and circle radii reflect growth rates—the minimum number of sons per generation, as estimated by our two-phase growth model. Nodes are grouped by continental superpopulation (AFR, African; AMR, admixed American; EAS, East Asian; EUR, European; SAS, South Asian) and colored by haplogroup. Line segments connect phylogenetically nested lineages. This figure was generated with ggplot2 (ref. 32).