Nonsyndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown etiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death1. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance2,3,4,5. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies in 1,412 MVP cases and 2,439 controls. We identified 6 loci, which we replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls, and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1), which encodes a transcription factor6 and for which morpholino knockdown of the ortholog in zebrafish resulted in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained with knockdown of the ortholog of TNS1, which encodes tensin 1, a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also showed expression of tensin 1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1−/− mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair7.
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We acknowledge the major contribution of the Leducq Foundation, Paris for supporting a transatlantic consortium investigating the physiopathology of mitral valve disease, for which this genome-wide association study was a major project (coordinators: R.A.L. and A.A.H.). We thank J. Leyton-Mange, X.-X. Nguyen and M. McLellan for help with the zebrafish experiments and P. Mathieu as one of the main investigators of the PROGRAM (Determinants of the Progression and Outcomes of Organic Mitral Regurgitation) study, from which was ascertained the Canadian MVP case control study. C.D., T.L.T. and J.-J.S. acknowledge a translational research grant on genetics of mitral valve funded by the Nantes Hospital (CHU Nantes). R.A.L. acknowledges grant support from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH; grants K24 HL67434, R01 HL72265 and HL109506). N.B.-N. is recipient of a French young investigator fund (ANR-13-ISV1-0006-0). D.J.M. acknowledges the support of the Hassenfeld Scholar Program and a gift from Michael Zak. P.T.E. is supported by grants from the NIH (HL092577, HL104156, K24HL105780, HL065962), an Established Investigator Award from the American Heart Association (13EIA14220013) and support from the Fondation Leducq (14CVD01). P.P. holds the Canada Research Chair in Valvular Heart Diseases and is supported by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR; grants MOP-102737, MOP-114997 and MOP-126072). Y.B. is the recipient of a Junior 2 Research Scholar award from the Fonds de recherche Québec–Santé (FRQS) and is supported by the CIHR (MOP-102481 and MOP-137058). L.F.-F. and J.S. received financial support from the Spanish Society of Cardiology. R.D. was supported by fellowships from the fund for medical discovery of the Massachusetts General Hospital and by a Marie Curie reintegration award from the European Commission R.R.M. and R.A.N. performed their work in a facility constructed with support from the US National Institutes of Health, grant C06 RR018823, from the Extramural Research Facilities Program of the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: R01-HL33756 (R.R.M.), COBRE 1P30 GM103342 (R.R.M. and R.A.N.), 8P20 GM103444-07 (R.R.M. and R.A.N.), R01-HL127692 (D.J.M., S.A.S. and R.A.N.) and American Heart Association 15GRNT25080052 (R.A.N.). A.A.H., N.B.-N. and X.J. acknowledge funds from INSERM and the French Society of Cardiology.
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Nature Communications (2016)