IPCC. 2014: Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. Field, C.B. et al.). 1–32 (Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Bohra-Mishra, P., Oppenheimer, M. & Hsiang, S.M. Nonlinear permanent migration response to climatic variations but minimal response to disasters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 9780–9785 (2014).
Peng, S. et al. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 9971–9975 (2004).
Battisti, D.S. & Naylor, R.L. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 323, 240–244 (2009).
Lobell, D.B., Schlenker, W. & Costa-Roberts, J. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science 333, 616–620 (2011).
Mba, C., Guimaraes, E.P. & Ghosh, K. Re-orienting crop improvement for the changing climatic conditions of the 21st century. Agriculture & Food Security 1, 7 (2012).
Takeda, S. & Matsuoka, M. Genetic approaches to crop improvement: responding to environmental and population changes. Nat. Rev. Genet. 9, 444–457 (2008).
Zhu, C.L. et al. Mapping QTL for heat-tolerance at grain filling stage in rice. Rice Science 12, 33–38 (2005).
Wei, H. et al. A dominant major locus in chromosome 9 of rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers tolerance to 48 °C high temperature at seedling stage. J. Hered. 104, 287–294 (2013).
Lyman, N.B., Jagadish, K.S.V., Nalley, L.L., Dixon, B.L. & Siebenmorgen, T. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress. PLoS One 8, e72157 (2013).
Trnka, M. et al. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change. Nat. Clim. Chang. 4, 637–643 (2014).
Semenov, M.A. & Shewry, P.R. Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe. Sci. Rep. 1, 66 (2011).
Sarla, N. & Swamy, B.P.M. Oryza glaberrima: a source for the improvement of Oryza sativa. Curr. Sci. 89, 955–963 (2005).
Sakai, H. et al. Distinct evolutionary patterns of Oryza glaberrima deciphered by genome sequencing and comparative analysis. Plant J. 66, 796–805 (2011).
Linares, O.F. African rice (Oryza glaberrima): history and future potential. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 16360–16365 (2002).
Luo, J.J., Hao, W., Jin, J., Gao, J.P. & Lin, H.X. Fine mapping of Spr3, a locus for spreading panicle from African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Mol. Plant 1, 830–838 (2008).
Wang, S., Kurepa, J. & Smalle, J.A. The Arabidopsis 26S proteasome subunit RPN1a is required for optimal plant growth and stress responses. Plant Cell Physiol. 50, 1721–1725 (2009).
Peng, Z. et al. The cellular level of PR500, a protein complex related to the 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome, is regulated in response to stresses in plants. Mol. Biol. Cell 12, 383–392 (2001).
Nishizawa-Yokoi, A. et al. The 26S proteasome function and Hsp90 activity involved in the regulation of HsfA2 expression in response to oxidative stress. Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 486–496 (2010).
Lee, K.H. et al. The RPT2 subunit of the 26S proteasome directs complex assembly, histone dynamics, and gametophyte and sporophyte development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 23, 4298–4317 (2011).
Book, A.J. et al. The RPN5 subunit of the 26S proteasome is essential for gametogenesis, sporophyte development, and complex assembly in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 21, 460–478 (2009).
Ueda, M. et al. The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems. Development 131, 2101–2111 (2004).
Huang, W. et al. The proteolytic function of the Arabidopsis 26S proteasome is required for specifying leaf adaxial identity. Plant Cell 18, 2479–2492 (2006).
Gallois, J.L. et al. The Arabidopsis proteasome RPT5 subunits are essential for gametophyte development and show accession-dependent redundancy. Plant Cell 21, 442–459 (2009).
Brukhin, V., Gheyselinck, J., Gagliardini, V., Genschik, P. & Grossniklaus, U. The RPN1 subunit of the 26S proteasome in Arabidopsis is essential for embryogenesis. Plant Cell 17, 2723–2737 (2005).
Kurepa, J. & Smalle, J.A. Structure, function and regulation of plant proteasomes. Biochimie 90, 324–335 (2008).
Vierstra, R.D. The ubiquitin-26S proteasome system at the nexus of plant biology. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10, 385–397 (2009).
Huber, E.M. et al. Immuno- and constitutive proteasome crystal structures reveal differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. Cell 148, 727–738 (2012).
Groll, M. et al. Structure of 20S proteasome from yeast at 2.4 Å resolution. Nature 386, 463–471 (1997).
Vierstra, R.D. The ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway, the complex last chapter in the life of many plant proteins. Trends Plant Sci. 8, 135–142 (2003).
Bhattacharyya, S., Yu, H., Mim, C. & Matouschek, A. Regulated protein turnover: snapshots of the proteasome in action. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15, 122–133 (2014).
Ruschak, A.M., Religa, T.L., Breuer, S., Witt, S. & Kay, L.E. The proteasome antechamber maintains substrates in an unfolded state. Nature 467, 868–871 (2010).
Groll, M. et al. A gated channel into the proteasome core particle. Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 1062–1067 (2000).
Kim, W. et al. Systematic and quantitative assessment of the ubiquitin-modified proteome. Mol. Cell 44, 325–340 (2011).
Udeshi, N.D., Mertins, P., Svinkina, T. & Carr, S.A. Large-scale identification of ubiquitination sites by mass spectrometry. Nat. Protoc. 8, 1950–1960 (2013).
Wang, M. et al. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication. Nat. Genet. 46, 982–988 (2014).
Hao, W., Jin, J., Sun, S.Y., Zhu, M.Z. & Lin, H.X. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines carrying overlapping chromosome segments of the whole wild rice genome and identification of quantitative trait loci for rice quality. Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao 32, 354–362 (2006).
Hao, W., Zhu, M.Z., Gao, J.P., Sun, S.Y. & Lin, H.X. Identification of quantitative trait loci for rice quality in a population of chromosome segment substitution lines. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51, 500–512 (2009).
Huang, X. et al. A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice. Nature 490, 497–501 (2012).
Baniwal, S.K. et al. Heat stress response in plants: a complex game with chaperones and more than twenty heat stress transcription factors. J. Biosci. 29, 471–487 (2004).
Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Alam, M.M., Roychowdhury, R. & Fujita, M. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, 9643–9684 (2013).
Yanagawa, Y. et al. Purification and characterization of the 26S proteasome from cultured rice (Oryza sativa) cells. Plant Sci. 149, 33–41 (1999).
Shibahara, T., Kawasaki, H. & Hirano, H. Identification of the 19S regulatory particle subunits from the rice 26S proteasome. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 1474–1483 (2002).
International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. The map-based sequence of the rice genome. Nature 436, 793–800 (2005).
Mao, J., Zhang, Y.C., Sang, Y., Li, Q.H. & Yang, H.Q. A role for Arabidopsis cryptochromes and COP1 in the regulation of stomatal opening. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12270–12275 (2005).
Warthmann, N., Chen, H., Ossowski, S., Weigel, D. & Herve, P. Highly specific gene silencing by artificial miRNAs in rice. PLoS One 3, e1829 (2008).
Hiei, Y., Ohta, S., Komari, T. & Kumashiro, T. Efficient transformation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) mediated by Agrobacterium and sequence-analysis of the boundaries of the T-DNA. Plant J. 6, 271–282 (1994).
Gao, C., Liu, J.X. & Nielsen, K.K. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.). Plant Cell Rep. 28, 1431–1437 (2009).
Clough, S.J. & Bent, A.F. Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 16, 735–743 (1998).
Sun, S.Y. et al. OsHAL3 mediates a new pathway in the light-regulated growth of rice. Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 845–851 (2009).
Wiśniewski, J.R., Zougman, A., Nagaraj, N. & Mann, M. Universal sample preparation method for proteome analysis. Nat. Methods 6, 359–362 (2009).
Subramanian, A. et al. Gene set enrichment analysis: a knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15545–15550 (2005).
Mootha, V.K. et al. PGC-1α-responsive genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are coordinately downregulated in human diabetes. Nat. Genet. 34, 267–273 (2003).
Huang, X. et al. Genome-wide association studies of 14 agronomic traits in rice landraces. Nat. Genet. 42, 961–967 (2010).