Analysis | Published:

Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

Nature Genetics volume 45, pages 984994 (2013) | Download Citation

Abstract

Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.

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Acknowledgements

This research was directly supported by the Australian Research Council (FT0991360 and DE130100614) and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (613608, 1011506 and 1047956). The PGC Cross-Disorder Group is supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant U01 MH085520. Statistical analyses were carried out on the Genetic Cluster Computer (see URLs), which is financially supported by the Netherlands Scientific Organization (NOW; 480-05-003; principal investigator D.P.) along with a supplement from the Dutch Brain Foundation and VU University. Numerous (>100) grants from government agencies along with substantial private and foundation support worldwide enabled the collection of phenotype and genotype data, without which this research would not be possible; grant numbers are listed in primary PGC publications or in the Supplementary Note.

Author information

Author notes

    • Edward G Jones
    •  & Walter J Muir

    Deceased.

    • Kenneth S Kendler
    •  & Naomi R Wray

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    • S Hong Lee
    • , Bryan J Mowry
    • , Enda M Byrne
    • , Peter M Visscher
    •  & Naomi R Wray
  2. Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Stephan Ripke
    • , Benjamin M Neale
    • , Shaun M Purcell
    • , Verneri Anttila
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    •  & Mark J Daly
  3. Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Stephan Ripke
    • , Benjamin M Neale
    • , Shaun M Purcell
    • , Roy H Perlis
    • , Sarah E Bergen
    • , Kimberly Chambert
    • , Steven A McCarroll
    • , Jennifer L Moran
    • , Colm O'Dushlaine
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    • , Lizzy Rossin
    • , Edward Scolnick
    • , Mark J Daly
    •  & Jordan W Smoller
  4. Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

    • Stephen V Faraone
  5. Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

    • Stephen V Faraone
  6. Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Shaun M Purcell
    • , Douglas Ruderfer
    •  & Pamela Sklar
  7. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Roy H Perlis
    • , Sarah E Bergen
    • , Phil H Lee
    •  & Jordan W Smoller
  8. Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Wacol, Queensland, Australia.

    • Bryan J Mowry
  9. Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

    • Anita Thapar
    • , Christine Fraser
    • , Lyudmila Georgieva
    • , Katherine Gordon-Smith
    • , Detelina Grozeva
    • , Marian L Hamshere
    • , Peter A Holmans
    • , Ian Jones
    • , George K Kirov
    • , Valentina Moskvina
    • , Ivan Nikolov
    • , Michael J Owen
    • , Nigel Williams
    • , Stanley Zammit
    • , Michael C O'Donovan
    •  & Nicholas Craddock
  10. Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

    • Anita Thapar
    • , Christine Fraser
    • , Lyudmila Georgieva
    • , Ian Jones
    • , George K Kirov
    • , Ivan Nikolov
    • , Michael J Owen
    • , Nigel Williams
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    •  & Nicholas Craddock
  11. Biosciences Research Division, Department of Environment and Primary Industries Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  12. Faculty of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  13. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

    • John S Witte
  14. HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.

    • Devin Absher
    •  & Richard M Myers
  15. KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ingrid Agartz
    • , Ole A Andreassen
    • , Srdjan Djurovic
    • , Morten Mattingsdal
    •  & Ingrid Melle
  16. Department of Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ingrid Agartz
  17. Molecular Psychiatry Laboratory, Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Huda Akil
    • , Fan Meng
    • , Robert C Thompson
    •  & Stanley J Watson
  18. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

    • Farooq Amin
  19. Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ole A Andreassen
    •  & Ingrid Melle
  20. Mental Health Sciences Unit, University College London, London, UK.

    • Adebayo Anjorin
    • , Nicholas Bass
    • , Khalid Choudhury
    • , Hugh Gurling
    • , Radhika Kandaswamy
    • , Robert Krasucki
    • , Jacob Lawrence
    • , Andrew McQuillin
    • , Jonathan Pimm
    •  & Vinay Puri
  21. Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Richard Anney
    • , Paul Cormican
    • , Aiden Corvin
    • , Gary J Donohoe
    • , Louise Gallagher
    • , Michael Gill
    • , Elaine Kenny
    • , Derek W Morris
    •  & Emma M Quinn
  22. McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Dan E Arking
    •  & Aravinda Chakravarti
  23. MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.

    • Philip Asherson
    • , Gerome Breen
    • , David A Collier
    • , Ian W Craig
    • , Anne E Farmer
    • , Jonna Kuntsi
    • , Cathryn M Lewis
    •  & Peter McGuffin
  24. Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

    • Maria H Azevedo
    •  & Guiomar Oliveira
  25. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Lena Backlund
    • , Louise Frisén
    • , Urban Osby
    •  & Martin Schalling
  26. Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Judith A Badner
    •  & Elliot S Gershon
  27. Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    • Anthony J Bailey
  28. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

    • Tobias Banaschewski
  29. Department of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Jack D Barchas
  30. GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK.

    • Michael R Barnes
  31. Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Thomas B Barrett
  32. Stella Maris Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy.

    • Agatino Battaglia
  33. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, Germany.

    • Michael Bauer
  34. Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG), Parc Científic de Barcelona (PCB), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Mònica Bayés
  35. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U955, Psychiatrie Génétique, Créteil, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
    • , Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  36. Université Denis Diderot, Paris, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
  37. Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Louis, Lariboisiere, F Widal, Departement de Psychiatrie, Paris, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
  38. ENBREC (European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres) Group, Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
    • , Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  39. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Sarah E Bergen
    • , Christina M Hultman
    • , Anna K Kähler
    • , Mikael Landén
    • , Niklas Långström
    • , Paul Lichtenstein
    •  & Patrik K E Magnusson
  40. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Wade Berrettini
    • , Josephine Elia
    •  & Falk W Lohoff
  41. INSERM U952, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  42. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7224, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  43. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  44. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

    • Thomas Bettecken
    • , Elisabeth B Binder
    • , Darina Czamara
    • , Florian Holsboer
    • , Marcus Ising
    • , Martin A Kohli
    • , Susanne Lucae
    • , Bertram Müller-Myhsok
    •  & Manfred Uhr
  45. Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Joseph Biederman
  46. Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

    • Donald W Black
    • , William H Coryell
    • , James B Potash
    •  & Thomas H Wassink
  47. Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

    • Douglas H R Blackwood
    • , Donald J MacIntyre
    • , Kevin A McGhee
    • , Andrew McIntosh
    • , Alan W McLean
    • , Walter J Muir
    •  & Benjamin S Pickard
  48. The Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Cinnamon S Bloss
    • , Nicholas J Schork
    •  & Erin N Smith
  49. Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Cinnamon S Bloss
  50. Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Michael Boehnke
    • , Matthew Flickinger
    • , Weihua Guan
    • , Phoenix Kwan
    • , Laura J Scott
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  51. Center for Statistical Genetics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Michael Boehnke
    • , Matthew Flickinger
    • , Weihua Guan
    • , Phoenix Kwan
    • , Laura J Scott
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  52. Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , Christel M Middeldorp
    •  & Gonneke Willemsen
  53. EMGO+ (ExtraMuraalGeneeskundig Onderzoek) Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Brenda W Penninx
    • , Johannes H Smit
    • , Gerard Van Grootheest
    •  & Gonneke Willemsen
  54. Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , Christel M Middeldorp
    •  & Brenda W Penninx
  55. National Institute of Heath Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, South London, London, UK and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Trust and Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

    • Gerome Breen
  56. Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

    • René Breuer
    • , Josef Frank
    • , Sandra Meier
    • , Marcella Rietschel
    • , Jana Strohmaier
    • , Jens Treutlein
    •  & Stephanie H Witt
  57. Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Richard Bruggeman
  58. School of Nursing, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

    • Nancy G Buccola
  59. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Jan K Buitelaar
    •  & Barbara Franke
  60. Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California–Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

    • William E Bunney
  61. Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Joseph D Buxbaum
  62. Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

    • William F Byerley
    •  & Steven P Hamilton
  63. NCIRE (Northern California Institute of Q Research and Education), San Francisco, California, USA.

    • William F Byerley
  64. Department of Psychiatry, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.

    • Sian Caesar
    • , Katherine Gordon-Smith
    •  & Lisa Jones
  65. Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    • Wiepke Cahn
    •  & René S Kahn
  66. David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Rita M Cantor
  67. Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en el Area de Salud Mental), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Miguel Casas
    • , Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
    •  & Marta Ribasés
  68. Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Miguel Casas
    •  & Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
  69. Department of Genomics, Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
    • , Franziska Degenhardt
    • , Stefan Herms
    • , Thomas W Mühleisen
    •  & Markus M Nöthen
  70. Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
  71. Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
    • , Franziska Degenhardt
    • , Manuel Mattheisen
    • , Thomas W Mühleisen
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  72. Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

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  73. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

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  74. Department of Psychiatry, Institute for Juvenile Research, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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  75. Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

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  76. Departament de Genètica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

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    • Jennifer Crosbie
    •  & Russell Schachar
  81. John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

    • Michael L Cuccaro
    •  & Margaret A Pericak-Vance
  82. East London NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

    • David Curtis
  83. Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany.

    • Darina Czamara
    •  & Bertram Müller-Myhsok
  84. Genetics Institute, University College London, London, UK.

    • Susmita Datta
  85. Autism Speaks, New York, New York, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
  86. Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
  87. Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
    •  & Joseph Piven
  88. Division of Neuroscience, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK.

    • Richard Day
    •  & Keith Matthews
  89. Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Srdjan Djurovic
  90. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alysa E Doyle
  91. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, NorthShore University Health System and University of Chicago, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

    • Jubao Duan
    • , Pablo V Gejman
    •  & Alan R Sanders
  92. Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

    • Frank Dudbridge
  93. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, JW Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

    • Eftichia Duketis
    • , Christine M Freitag
    •  & Fritz Poustka
  94. Psychology Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

    • Richard P Ebstein
  95. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • Howard J Edenberg
  96. Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • Howard J Edenberg
    • , Tatiana Foroud
    • , Daniel L Koller
    •  & John I Nurnberger
  97. AI Dupont Hospital for Children, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Josephine Elia
  98. School of Medicine, Medical Science University College, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Sean Ennis
  99. Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France.

    • Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  100. AP-HP, Hôpital H Mondor–A Chenevier, Département de Psychiatrie, Créteil, France.

    • Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  101. Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

    • Ayman Fanous
  102. Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Ayman Fanous
    • , Michael C Neale
    •  & Kenneth S Kendler
  103. Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    • I Nicol Ferrier
    • , Jeremy R Parr
    •  & Allan H Young
  104. Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Eric Fombonne
  105. Institute for Development & Disability, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Eric Fombonne
  106. Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

    • Robert Freedman
    •  & Ann Olincy
  107. Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Nelson B Freimer
    • , Sandra K Loo
    • , Stan F Nelson
    • , Roel A Ophoff
    •  & Susan L Smalley
  108. Department of Psychiatry, University of Halle, Halle, Germany.

    • Marion Friedl
    • , Ina Giegling
    • , Annette M Hartmann
    • , Bettina Konte
    •  & Dan Rujescu
  109. Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Daniel H Geschwind
    •  & Jennifer K Lowe
  110. Center for Autism Research and Treatment, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Daniel H Geschwind
    •  & Jennifer K Lowe
  111. Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    • Scott D Gordon
    • , Anjali K Henders
    • , Nicholas G Martin
    • , Sarah E Medland
    • , Grant W Montgomery
    •  & Dale R Nyholt
  112. Department of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK.

    • Elaine K Green
  113. Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Tiffany A Greenwood
    • , Rebecca McKinney
    • , Caroline M Nievergelt
    • , Paul D Shilling
    •  & John R Kelsoe
  114. Division of Tics, OCD and Related Disorders, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Dorothy E Grice
  115. Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Dorothy E Grice
    •  & Jeremy M Silverman
  116. Department of Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Magdalena Gross
    • , Susanne Hoefels
    •  & Wolfgang Maier
  117. Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

    • Weihua Guan
  118. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam The Netherlands.

    • Lieuwe De Haan
  119. Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • Jonathan L Haines
  120. The Center for Applied Genomics, Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Hakon Hakonarson
  121. Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Hakon Hakonarson
  122. Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Joachim Hallmayer
  123. Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Unit, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

    • Marian L Hamshere
    • , Peter A Holmans
    •  & Valentina Moskvina
  124. Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Thomas F Hansen
    • , Andrés Ingason
    • , Line Olsen
    • , Henrik B Rasmussen
    •  & Thomas Werge
  125. The Lundbeck Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Thomas F Hansen
    • , Andrés Ingason
    • , Manuel Mattheisen
    • , Line Olsen
    • , Henrik B Rasmussen
    •  & Thomas Werge
  126. Department of Clinical and Developmental Psychology, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

    • Martin Hautzinger
  127. Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    • Ian B Hickie
  128. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

    • Maria Hipolito
    • , William B Lawson
    •  & Evaristus A Nwulia
  129. Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Witte J Hoogendijk
  130. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Vanessa Hus
  131. Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

    • Edward G Jones
  132. Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

    • Jung-Ying Tzeng
  133. Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

    • Matthew C Keller
  134. Psychiatric Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • James L Kennedy
  135. School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.

    • Lindsey Kent
  136. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Yunjung Kim
    •  & Patrick F Sullivan
  137. Division of Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

    • Sabine M Klauck
  138. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Lambertus Klei
    •  & Bernie Devlin
  139. Department of Psychiatry, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • James A Knowles
    • , Helena Medeiros
    • , Carlos N Pato
    •  & Michele T Pato
  140. Wolfson Institute of Preventitive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    • Ania Korszun
  141. Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, South Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    • Lydia Krabbendam
    • , Inez Myin-Germeys
    •  & Jim Van Os
  142. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • Mikael Landén
  143. Centre National de Genotypage, Evry, France.

    • Mark Lathrop
  144. Geisinger Health System, Autism and Developmental Medicine Institute, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • David H Ledbetter
    •  & Christa L Martin
  145. Department of Psychiatry, Division of Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital Division of the North Shore, Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  146. Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, The Feinstein Institute of Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  147. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  148. Division of Molecular Psychiatry, ADHD Clinical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

    • Klaus-Peter Lesch
  149. Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHENS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    • Klaus-Peter Lesch
  150. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Douglas F Levinson
  151. Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Jun Li
  152. New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Jeffrey A Lieberman
    •  & Patrick J McGrath
  153. Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Dan-Yu Lin
  154. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Don H Linszen
  155. Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Chunyu Liu
  156. Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Sandra K Loo
    •  & Susan L Smalley
  157. Center for Autism and the Developing Brain, Weill Cornell Medical College, White Plains, New York, USA.

    • Catherine Lord
  158. Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

    • Elena Maestrini
  159. Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Pamela B Mahon
    •  & Thomas G Schulze
  160. Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Orange, Connecticut, USA.

    • Shrikant M Mane
  161. Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

    • Manuel Mattheisen
  162. Department of Genomic Mathematics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Manuel Mattheisen
  163. Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway.

    • Morten Mattingsdal
  164. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • James J McGough
  165. Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Melvin G McInnis
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  166. Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

    • Andrew McIntosh
    • , Alan W McLean
    • , Walter J Muir
    •  & Benjamin S Pickard
  167. National Institute of Mental Health, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Francis J McMahon
  168. Department of Neurobehavioral Genetics, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

    • Jobst Meyer
  169. Neuroepidemiology and Ageing Research, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

    • Lefkos Middleton
  170. Department of Psychiatry, First Psychiatric Clinic, Alexander University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.

    • Vihra Milanova
  171. Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

    • Ana Miranda
  172. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Anthony P Monaco
  173. Office of the President, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Anthony P Monaco
  174. Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Daniel Moreno-De-Luca
    • , Stephan J Sanders
    •  & Matthew State
  175. Department of Psychiatry, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

    • Gunnar Morken
  176. Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

    • Gunnar Morken
  177. Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

    • Eric M Morrow
  178. Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

    • Eric M Morrow
  179. Neurosciences Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Verona, Italy.

    • Pierandrea Muglia
    •  & Federica Tozzi
  180. Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas W Mühleisen
  181. Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Michael Murtha
    • , Stephan J Sanders
    • , Matthew State
    •  & A Jeremy Willsey
  182. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
  183. Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
  184. Department of Psychiatry, Groningen University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands.

    • Willem A Nolen
  185. Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • John I Nurnberger
  186. Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

    • Robert D Oades
  187. Research and Clinical Training Department, Pediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

    • Guiomar Oliveira
  188. Department of Human Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Roel A Ophoff
  189. Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    • Roel A Ophoff
  190. Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    • Aarno Palotie
    •  & Karola Rehnström
  191. Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Andrew D Paterson
  192. Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Andrew D Paterson
    •  & Wei Xu
  193. Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Brenda W Penninx
    • , Johannes H Smit
    •  & Gerard Van Grootheest
  194. Department of Functional Genomics, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  195. Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  196. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  197. Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Digby J Quested
  198. Department of Psychiatry, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

    • Andreas Reif
  199. Psychiatric Genetics Unit, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Marta Ribasés
  200. Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • John P Rice
  201. Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Kathryn Roeder
  202. Department of Experimental Clinical & Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

    • Herbert Roeyers
    •  & Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
  203. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    • Aribert Rothenberger
  204. Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Guy Rouleau
  205. Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Stephan J Sanders
    • , Matthew State
    •  & A Jeremy Willsey
  206. Program on Neurogenetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Stephan J Sanders
  207. Department of Psychiatry, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine, USA.

    • Susan L Santangelo
  208. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Susan L Santangelo
  209. Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    • Joseph A Sergeant
  210. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

    • Alan F Schatzberg
  211. Rush Ambulatory Behavioral Health, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • William A Scheftner
  212. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Gerard D Schellenberg
  213. The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Stephen W Scherer
  214. The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Nicholas J Schork
    •  & Erin N Smith
  215. Department of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    • Thomas G Schulze
  216. Psychiatric Center Nordbaden, Wiesloch, Germany.

    • Markus Schwarz
  217. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Jianxin Shi
  218. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Stanley I Shyn
  219. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

    • Susan L Slager
  220. Developmental Brain & Behaviour Laboratory, Academic Unit of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

    • Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
  221. Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK.

    • David St. Clair
  222. Research Department, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Bonn, Germany.

    • Michael Steffens
  223. Research Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  224. Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  225. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  226. Molecular Neuropsychiatry and Development Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • John S Strauss
    •  & John B Vincent
  227. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

    • T Scott Stroup
  228. Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • James S Sutcliffe
  229. Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  230. Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  231. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  232. Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Marlborough House Secure Unit, Milton Keynes, UK.

    • Srinivasa Thirumalai
  233. Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Edwin J C G van den Oord
  234. Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  235. BioFIG—Center for Biodiversity, Functional and Integrative Genomics, Campus da FCUL, Campo Grande, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  236. Instituto Gulbenkian de Cîencia, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  237. Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

    • Veronica J Vieland
  238. The University of Queensland, Diamantina Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    • Peter M Visscher
  239. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  240. Division of Genetics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  241. Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School Center for Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  242. Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Center for Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  243. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

    • Myrna M Weissman
  244. Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Thomas Werge
  245. Institute of Medical Biometry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas F Wienker
  246. Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Ellen M Wijsman
  247. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Ellen M Wijsman
  248. Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.

    • Allan H Young
  249. Division of Genetics, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Timothy W Yu
  250. Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Peter P Zandi
  251. Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    • Frans G Zitman
  252. Department of Psychiatry, Special Treatment and Evaluation Program (STEP), Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA.

    • John R Kelsoe
  253. Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Kenneth S Kendler
  254. Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Kenneth S Kendler

Consortia

  1. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium

    International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC)

Authors

    Contributions

    Project conception: K.S.K., N.R.W. and J.W.S. Analysis: S.H.L. and N.R.W. Writing of the manuscript: N.R.W., S.H.L., K.S.K. and S.V.F. Quality control for PGC data: S. Ripke and B.M.N. Revisions to the manuscript: S.M.P., J.W.S., R.H.P., B.J.M., P.F.S., A.T., C.O., M.J.D., R.D.O. and J.B. Statistical advice: M.E.G. and J.S.W. Data access: D.P. PGC Workgroup Chairs: M.J.D. (analysis), S.V.F. (ADHD), M.J.D. and B.D. (co-chairs ASD), J.K. and P. Sklar (co-chairs bipolar disorder), P.F.S. (major depressive disorder), M.C.O. (schizophrenia) and J.W.S. and K.S.K. (co-chairs cross-disorder group). Collection, genotyping and analysis for PGC Working Groups. PGC ADHD Working Group: B.M.N., S.V.F., A.T., R.A., P.A., T. Banaschewski, M. Bayés, J.B., J.K.B., M.C., B.C., J.C., A.E.D., R.P.E., J.E., B.F., C.M.F., L. Kent, J.K., K.-P.L., S.K.L., J.M., J.J.M., S.E.M., J.M.S., A. Miranda, S.F.N., R.D.O., J.A.R.-Q., A. Reif, M. Ribasés, H.R., A. Rothenberger, J.A.S., R.S., S.L. Smalley, E.J.S.S.-B., H.-C.S., A.A.T. and N.W. PGC ASD Working Group: R.A., D.E.A., A.J.B., A.B., C.B., J.D. Buxbaum, A. Chakravarti, E.H.C., H.C., M.L.C., G.D., E.D., S.E., E.F., C.M.F., L. Gallagher, D.H.G., M. Gill, D.E.G., J.L.H., H.H., J.H., V.H., S.M.K., L. Klei, D.H. Ledbetter, C. Lord, J.K.L., E.M., S.M.M., C.L.M., W.M.M., A.P.M., D.M.-D.-L., E.M.M., M. Murtha, G.O., A.P., J.R.P., A.D.P., M.A.P.-V., J. Piven, F.P., K. Rehnström, K. Roeder, G.R., S.J.S., S.L. Santangelo, G.D.S., S.W.S., M. State, J.S. Sutcliffe, P. Szatmari, A.M.V., V.J.V., C.A.W., T.H.W., E.M.W., A.J.W., T.W.Y., B.D. and M.J.D. PGC BPD Working Group: S.M.P., D.A., H.A., O.A.A., A.A., L.B., J.A.B., J.D. Barchas, T.B.B., N.B., M. Bauer, F.B., S.E.B., W.B., D.H.R.B., C.S.B., M. Boehnke, G.B., R. Breuer, W.E.B., W.F.B., S. Caesar, K. Chambert, S. Cichon, D.A.C., A. Corvin, W.H.C., D.W.C., R.D., F. Degenhardt, S. Djurovic, F. Dudbridge, H.J.E., B.E., A.E.F., I.N.F., M. Flickinger, T.F., J.F., C.F., L.F., E.S.G., M. Gill, K.G.-S., E.K.G., T.A.G., D.G., W.G., H.G., M.L.H., M. Hautzinger, S. Herms, M. Hipolito, P.A.H., C.M.H., S.J., E.G.J., I.J., L.J., R. Kandaswamy, J.L.K., G.K.K., D.L.K., P.K., M. Landén, N.L., M. Lathrop, J. Lawrence, W.B.L., M. Leboyer, P.H.L., J. Li, P.L., D.-Y.L., C. Liu, F.W.L., S.L., P.B.M., W.M., N.G.M., M. Mattheisen, K.M., M. Mattingsdal, K.A.M., P.M., M.G.M., A. McIntosh, R.M., A.W.M., F.J.M., A. McQuillin, S.M., I.M., F.M., G.W.M., J.L.M., G.M., D.W.M., V. Moskvina, P.M., T.W.M., W.J.M., B.M.-M., R.M.M., C.M.N., I.N., V.N., M.M.N., J.I.N., E.A.N., C.O., U.O., M.J.O., B.S.P., J.B.P., P.P., E.M.Q., S. Raychaudhuri, A. Reif, J.P.R., M. Rietschel, D. Ruderfer, M. Schalling, A.F.S., W.A.S., N.J.S., T.G.S., J. Schumacher, M. Schwarz, E.S., L.J.S., P.D.S., E.N.S., D.S.C., M. Steffens, J.S. Strauss, J. Strohmaier, S.S., R.C.T., F.T., J.T., J.B.V., S.J.W., T.F.W., S.H.W., W.X., A.H.Y., P.P.Z., P.Z., S. Zöllner, J.R.K., P. Sklar, M.J.D., M.C.O. and N.C. PGC MDD Working Group: M.R.B., T. Bettecken, E.B.B., D.H.R.B., D.I.B., G.B., R. Breuer, S. Cichon, W.H.C., I.W.C., D. Czamara, E.J.D.G., F. Degenhardt, A.E.F., J.F., S.D.G., M. Gross, S.P.H., A.C.H., A.K.H., S. Herms, I.B.H., F.H., W.J.H., S. Hoefels, J.-J.H., M.I., I.J., L.J., J.-Y. T., J.A.K., M.A.K., A.K., W.B.L., D.F.L., C.M.L., D.-Y.L., S.L., D.J.M., P.A.F.M., W.M.,. N.G.M., M. Mattheisen, P.J.M., P.M., A. McIntosh, A.W.M., C.M.M., L.M., G.W.M., P.M., B.M.-M., W.A.N., M.M.N., D.R.N., B.W.P., M.L.P., J.B.P., M. Rietschel, W.A.S., T.G.S., J. Shi, S.I.S., S.L. Slager, J.H.S., M. Steffens, F.T., J.T., M.U., E.J.C.G.v.d.O., G.V.G., M.M.W., G.W., F.G.Z., P.F.S. and N.R.W. PGC SCZ Working Group: S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., B.J.M., I.A., F.A., O.A.A., M.H.A., N.B., D.W.B., D.H.R.B., R. Bruggeman, N.G.B., W.F.B., W.C., R.M.C., K. Choudhury, S. Cichon, C.R.C., P.C., A. Corvin, D. Curtis, S. Datta, S. Djurovic, G.J.D., J.D., F. Dudbridge, A.F., R.F., N.B.F., M. Friedl, P.V.G., L. Georgieva, I.G., M. Gill, H.G., L.D.H., M.L.H., T.F.H., A.M.H., P.A.H., C.M.H., A.I., A.K.K, R.S.K., M.C.K., E.K., Y.K., G.K.K., B.K., L. Krabbendam, R. Krasucki, J. Lawrence, P.H.L., T.L., D.F.L., J.A.L., D.-Y.L., D.H. Linszen, P.K.E.M., W.M., A.K.M., M. Mattheisen, M. Mattingsdal, S.M., S.A.M., A. McIntosh, A. McQuillin, H.M., I.M., V. Milanova, D.W.M., V. Moskvina, I.M.-G., M.M.N., C.O., A.O., L.O., R.A.O., M.J.O., C.N.P., M.T.P., B.S.P., J. Pimm, D.P., V.P., D.J.Q., H.B.R., M. Rietschel, L.R., D. Ruderfer, D. Rujescu, A.R.S., T.G.S., J. Shi, J.M.S., D.S.C., T.S.S., S.T., J.V.O., P.M.V., T.W., S. Zammit, P. Sklar, M.J.D., M.C.O., N.C., P.F.S. and K.S.K. PGC Cross-Disorder Group Working Group: S.H.L., S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., R.H.P., A.T., A.F., M.C.N., J.I.N., B.W.P., M. Rietschel, T.G.S., N.C., S.L. Santangelo, P.F.S., J.W.S., K.S.K. and N.R.W. PGC Analysis Working Group: S.H.L., S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., V.A., E.M.B., P.H.L., S.E.M., M.C.N., D.P., M.J.D. and N.R.W.

    Competing interests

    The author declare no competing financial interests.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Naomi R Wray.

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    https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2711

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