The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs.
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We thank W. Evans for advice and support and P. Nagahawatte for submitting the genomic data to EBI. We are grateful for support from Anatomic Pathology and the Hartwell Center of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and from Beckman Coulter Genomics. We acknowledge the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital tissue resource facility, from which tissue samples were obtained in accordance with institutional review board approval for the Pediatric Cancer Genome Project. This work was supported by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and by a grant from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH; CA096832).
The author declare no competing financial interests.
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the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital–Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genetic alterations in pediatric low-grade gliomas. Nat Genet 45, 602–612 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2611
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