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Flowering-time genes modulate meristem determinacy and growth form in Arabidopsis thaliana


Plants have evolved annual and perennial life forms as alternative strategies to adapt reproduction and survival to environmental constraints. In isolated situations, such as islands, woody perennials have evolved repeatedly from annual ancestors1. Although the molecular basis of the rapid evolution of insular woodiness is unknown, the molecular difference between perennials and annuals might be rather small, and a change between these life strategies might not require major genetic innovations2,3. Developmental regulators can strongly affect evolutionary variation4 and genes involved in meristem transitions are good candidates for a switch in growth habit. We found that the MADS box proteins SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) not only control flowering time, but also affect determinacy of all meristems. In addition, downregulation of both proteins established phenotypes common to the lifestyle of perennial plants, suggesting their involvement in the prevention of secondary growth and longevity in annual life forms.

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Figure 1: Perennial features in soc1-3 ful-2 mutants.
Figure 2: Secondary growth in soc1-3 ful-2 plants.
Figure 3: Different plant growth forms in soc1-3 and ful-2 mutants.


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We appreciate the continuous support of K. Apel, D. Inzé and E. Smets. We thank J. Chandler and M. De Cock for critical reading of the manuscript. S.V. is indebted to the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders for a predoctoral fellowship. F.L. and A.R. are postdoctoral fellows of the Research Foundation-Flanders (FWO). Seeds of 35S:FT plants were provided by P. Wigge (John Innes Centre), seeds of the soc1-1 allele were provided by G. Coupland (Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research) and seeds of soc1-2 in Col and Ler backgrounds by I. Lee (University of Seoul).

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Correspondence to Siegbert Melzer.

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Melzer, S., Lens, F., Gennen, J. et al. Flowering-time genes modulate meristem determinacy and growth form in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Genet 40, 1489–1492 (2008).

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