Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Fish 'personalities' shaped by life experience

Triumph and despair alter fishes' future behaviour.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout


  1. FrostA. J., Winrow-GiffenA., AshleyP. J.& SneddonL. U., . Proc. R. Soc. B, doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3751 (2006).

Download references


Related links

Related links

Related links in Nature Research

Nature newsblog: The power of personality

Animal Behavior Society conference

Brain and behaviour news

Ecology and evolution news

Related external links

University of Liverpool School of Biological Sciences

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hopkin, M. Fish 'personalities' shaped by life experience. Nature (2006).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing