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Second law broken

Small-scale energy fluctuations could limit minaturization.

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  1. Wang, G. M., Sevick, E. M., Mittag, E., Searles, D.J. & Evans, D.J. Experimental Demonstration of Violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics for Small Systems and Short Time Scales. Physical Review Letters 89, 050601, (2002).

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  2. Evans, D. J., Cohen, E. G. D., & Morriss, G. P. Probability of Second Law Violations in Shearing Steady States. Physical Review Letters 71, 2401 - 2404 (1993).

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Gerstner, E. Second law broken. Nature (2002).

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