New theory shows that high performance needn't mean high risk.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 51 print issues and online access
$199.00 per year
only $3.90 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Newman, M. E. J., Girvan, M. & Farmer, J. D. Optimal design, robustness, and risk aversion. Preprint, (2002).
Carlson, J. M. & Doyle, J. Highly optimized tolerance: a mechanism for power laws in designed systems. Physical Review E 60, 1412 - 1427 (1999).
Carlson, J. M. & Doyle, J. Highly optimized tolerance: robustness and design in complex systems. Physical Review Letters 84, 2529 - 2532 (2000).
About this article
Cite this article
Ball, P. COLD safer than HOT. Nature (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/news020225-3