Maths says bird song is as simple as muscle and breath control.
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Gardner, T., Cecchi, G., Magnasco, M., Laje, R. & Mindlin, G. B. Simple motor gestures for birdsongs. Physical Review Letters 87, 208101 (2001).
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Ball, P. Canaries change their tune. Nature (2001). https://doi.org/10.1038/news011108-2