Low-bandgap mixed tin–lead iodide perovskite absorbers with long carrier lifetimes for all-perovskite tandem solar cells

Abstract

Tandem solar cells using only metal-halide perovskite sub-cells are an attractive choice for next-generation solar cells. However, the progress in developing efficient all-perovskite tandem solar cells has been hindered by the lack of high-performance low-bandgap perovskite solar cells. Here, we report efficient mixed tin–lead iodide low-bandgap (1.25 eV) perovskite solar cells with open-circuit voltages up to 0.85 V and over 70% external quantum efficiencies in the infrared wavelength range of 700–900 nm, delivering a short-circuit current density of over 29 mA cm−2 and demonstrating suitability for bottom-cell applications in all-perovskite tandem solar cells. Our low-bandgap perovskite solar cells achieve a maximum power conversion efficiency of 17.6% and a certified efficiency of 17.01% with a negligible current–voltage hysteresis. When mechanically stacked with a 1.58 eV bandgap perovskite top cell, our best all-perovskite 4-terminal tandem solar cell shows a steady-state efficiency of 21.0%.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Device architecture schematic and performance.
Figure 2: Characterization of (FASnI3)0.6(MAPbI3)0.4 perovskite films.
Figure 3: EQE spectra of (FASnI3)0.6(MAPbI3)0.4 PVSCs.
Figure 4: Characterization of the all-perovskite 4-terminal tandem cell.

References

  1. 1

    McMeekin, D. P. et al. A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells. Science 351, 151–155 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Wang, C. et al. Low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of tin oxide electron selective layers for highly efficient planar perovskite solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 12080–12087 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Yin, W.-J., Yang, J.-H., Kang, J., Yan, Y. & Wei, S.-H. Halide perovskite materials for solar cells: a theoretical review. J. Mater. Chem. A 3, 8926–8942 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Yin, W.-J., Shi, T. & Yan, Y. Unique properties of halide perovskites as possible origins of the superior solar cell performance. Adv. Mater. 26, 4653–4658 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Stranks, S. D. et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber. Science 342, 341–344 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Kojima, A., Teshima, K., Shirai, Y. & Miyasaka, T. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Bi, D. et al. Polymer-templated nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite films for solar cells with efficiency greater than 21%. Nat. Energy 1, 16142 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Yang, W. S. et al. High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange. Science 348, 1234–1237 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Kim, H.-S. et al. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci. Rep. 2, 591 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Eperon, G. E. et al. Perovskite-perovskite tandem photovoltaics with optimized bandgaps. Science 354, 861–865 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Yu, Z., Leilaeioun, M. & Holman, Z. Selecting tandem partners for silicon solar cells. Nat. Energy 1, 16137 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Meillaud, F., Shah, A., Droz, C., Vallat-Sauvain, E. & Miazza, C. Efficiency limits for single-junction and tandem solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2952–2959 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Hao, F., Stoumpos, C. C., Chang, R. P. H. & Kanatzidis, M. G. Anomalous band gap behavior in mixed Sn and Pb perovskites enables broadening of absorption spectrum in solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 8094–8099 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Im, J., Stoumpos, C. C., Jin, H., Freeman, A. J. & Kanatzidis, M. G. Antagonism between spin–orbit coupling and steric effects causes anomalous band gap evolution in the perovskite photovoltaic materials CH3NH3Sn1−xPbxI3 . J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 3503–3509 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Stoumpos, C. C., Malliakas, C. D. & Kanatzidis, M. G. Semiconducting tin and lead iodide perovskites with organic cations: phase transitions, high mobilities, and near-infrared photoluminescent properties. Inorg. Chem. 52, 9019–9038 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Liao, W. et al. Fabrication of efficient low-bandgap perovskite solar cells by combining formamidinium tin iodide with methylammonium lead iodide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 12360–12363 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Ogomi, Y. et al. CH3NH3SnxPb(1−x)I3 perovskite solar cells covering up to 1060 nm. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 1004–1011 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Anaya, M. et al. Optical analysis of CH3NH3SnxPb1−xI3 absorbers: a roadmap for perovskite-on-perovskite tandem solar cells. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 11214–11221 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Zuo, F. et al. Binary-metal perovskites toward high-performance planar-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Adv. Mater. 26, 6454–6460 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Yang, Z. et al. Stable low-bandgap Pb–Sn binary perovskites for tandem solar cells. Adv. Mater. 28, 8990–8997 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Li, Y. et al. 50% Sn-based planar perovskite solar cell with power conversion efficiency up to 13.6%. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1601353 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Bailie, C. D. et al. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 956–963 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Chen, B. et al. Efficient semitransparent perovskite solar cells for 23.0%-efficiency perovskite/silicon four-terminal tandem cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1601128 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Werner, J. et al. Efficient near-infrared-transparent perovskite solar cells enabling direct comparison of 4-terminal and monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem cells. ACS Energy Lett. 1, 474–480 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Fu, F. et al. Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications. Nat. Commun. 6, 8932 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Fu, F. et al. High-efficiency inverted semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells in substrate configuration. Nat. Energy 2, 16190 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Kranz, L. et al. High-efficiency polycrystalline thin film tandem solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6, 2676–2681 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Liu, J., Lu, S., Zhu, L., Li, X. & Choy, W. C. H. Perovskite-organic hybrid tandem solar cells using a nanostructured perovskite layer as the light window and a PFN/doped-MoO3/MoO3 multilayer as the interconnecting layer. Nanoscale 8, 3638–3646 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Zhao, D. et al. High-efficiency solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells with a polymer hole transport layer. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1401855 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Liao, W. et al. Lead-free inverted planar formamidinium tin triiodide perovskite solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 6.22%. Adv. Mater. 28, 9333–9340 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Zhao, D. et al. Annealing-free efficient vacuum-deposited planar perovskite solar cells with evaporated fullerenes as electron-selective layers. Nano Energy 19, 88–97 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Lee, S. J. et al. Fabrication of efficient formamidinium tin iodide perovskite solar cells through SnF2–pyrazine complex. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 3974–3977 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Chung, I., Lee, B., He, J., Chang, R. P. H. & Kanatzidis, M. G. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency. Nature 485, 486–489 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Xiao, Z. et al. Solvent annealing of perovskite-induced crystal growth for photovoltaic-device efficiency enhancement. Adv. Mater. 26, 6503–6509 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    De Wolf, S. et al. Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 1035–1039 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Sadhanala, A. et al. Preparation of single-phase films of CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 with sharp optical band edges. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2501–2505 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Wang, J. T.-W. et al. Efficient perovskite solar cells by metal ion doping. Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 2892–2901 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Johnson, S. R. & Tiedje, T. Temperature dependence of the Urbach edge in GaAs. J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5609–5613 (1995).

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Zanatta, A. R. & Chambouleyron, I. Absorption edge, band tails, and disorder of amorphous semiconductors. Phys. Rev. B 53, 3833–3836 (1996).

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Shao, Y., Xiao, Z., Bi, C., Yuan, Y. & Huang, J. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat. Commun. 5, 5784 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Shao, Y., Yuan, Y. & Huang, J. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat. Energy 1, 15001 (2016).

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Zhang, C. et al. An ultrathin, smooth, and low-loss Al-doped Ag film and its application as a transparent electrode in organic photovoltaics. Adv. Mater. 26, 5696–5701 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Zhao, D., Zhang, C., Kim, H. & Guo, L. J. High-performance Ta2O5/Al-doped Ag electrode for resonant light harvesting in efficient organic solar cells. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500768 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Zhao, D. W. et al. Optimization of inverted tandem organic solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 921–926 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work is financially supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative under the Next Generation Photovoltaics 3 programme (DE-FOA-0000990), National Science Foundation under contract no. CHE-1230246 and DMR-1534686, and the Ohio Research Scholar Program. The work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is supported by the US Department of Energy SunShot Initiative under the Next Generation Photovoltaics 3 programme (DE-FOA-0000990) under contract no. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. This research used the resources of the Ohio Supercomputer Center and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work at Southeast University (P.R. China) is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under contract no. 91422301.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

D.Z. and Y.Yan conceived the project. D.Z. carried out film and device fabrication and characterization. Y.Yu and C.W. prepared wide-bandgap perovskite film and devices. Y.Yu assisted with SEM measurement. W.L. assisted in device fabrication and characterization. C.R.G., A.J.C. and L.G. helped with the characterization. N.S. and R.J.E. conducted TRPL measurements. D.Z. and Y.Yan analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. K.Z. and R.-G.X. helped with the manuscript preparation. All the authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. Y.Yan supervised the project.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Dewei Zhao or Yanfa Yan.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figure 19, Supplementary Tables 13, Supplementary Methods, Supplementary References. (PDF 2434 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, D., Yu, Y., Wang, C. et al. Low-bandgap mixed tin–lead iodide perovskite absorbers with long carrier lifetimes for all-perovskite tandem solar cells. Nat Energy 2, 17018 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2017.18

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter for a daily update on COVID-19 science.
Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing