The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth assessment report emphasizes the importance of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage for achieving climate goals, but it does not identify solar energy as a strategically important technology option. That is surprising given the strong growth, large resource, and low environmental footprint of photovoltaics (PV). Here we explore how models have consistently underestimated PV deployment and identify the reasons for underlying bias in models. Our analysis reveals that rapid technological learning and technology-specific policy support were crucial to PV deployment in the past, but that future success will depend on adequate financing instruments and the management of system integration. We propose that with coordinated advances in multiple components of the energy system, PV could supply 30–50% of electricity in competitive markets.

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Figure 1: Growth in PV capacity and scenario projections.
Figure 2: Rapid decline in levelized cost of PV electricity.
Figure 3: Updating the integrated assessment model REMIND with recent price information.


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The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 308329 (ADVANCE).

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Correspondence to Felix Creutzig.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Supplementary Note 1

Detailed electricity sector modeling with high shares of PV and wind (PDF 232 kb)

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Creutzig, F., Agoston, P., Goldschmidt, J. et al. The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change. Nat Energy 2, 17140 (2017).

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