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Commercial progress and challenges for photovoltaics

The past five years have seen substantial cost reductions and greatly increased uptake of photovoltaics. Growth is being driven by ongoing improvements in both silicon solar cell costs and performance, making the commercialization of new technologies increasingly difficult.

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Figure 1: Silicon photovoltaic technology, annual market composition and associated spot prices for silicon wafers, cells and modules.
Figure 2: Evolution of module manufacturing costs and energy conversion efficiencies.
Figure 3: Tandem solar cells and their limiting efficiencies.


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Correspondence to Martin A. Green.

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Green, M. Commercial progress and challenges for photovoltaics. Nat Energy 1, 15015 (2016).

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