Figure 5 : EPPS lowers inflammation and glial GABA release.

From: EPPS rescues hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by disaggregation of amyloid-β oligomers and plaques

Figure 5

APP/PS1 and WT mice from the aforementioned behavioural tests were killed and subjected to brain analyses. EPPS, 0 (TG(), male, n=15), 10 (TG(+), male, n=11) or 30 mg kg−1 per day (TG(++), male, n=8), was orally given to 10.5-month-old APP/PS1 for 3.5 months and their brains were compared with age-matched WT brains (WT(), male, n=16). (a) Western blotting of phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), pJNK, GFAP and Iba-1 (densitometry, see Supplementary Fig. 3B, C). Full version (see Supplementary Fig. 8). (be) Histochemical analyses of Aβ deposition, GFAP, Iba-1 and GABA. (b) Aβ plaques stained with ThS (first row): blue; GFAP (second row): green; Iba-1 (third row): red; and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; fourth row): blue (as a location indicator). The bottom row shows merged images of plaques, GFAP and Iba-1 with DAPI staining. (c) Aβ plaques stained with ThS (first row): green; GFAP (second row): blue; and GABA (third row): violet. Scale bars, 50 μm. (d) Quantification of GABA in confocal images25. Each dot represents the number of GFAP-positive cells with GABA; a.u., arbitrary unit. (e) GABA average from the previous panel (P<0.0001 for all). Values refer to GFAP-positive GABA. The error bars represent the s.e.m. One-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparison tests were performed in the statistical analysis (***P<0.001; other comparisons were not significant). The mouse brain schematic diagram was created by authors (green box: region of brain images).