Figure 3: Morphology of vortex rings. | Nature Communications

Figure 3: Morphology of vortex rings.

From: Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

Figure 3

(a) A single vortex ring formed during ethanol drop (with diameter 1.9 mm) impact on the surface at a height of 35 mm (Supplementary Movie 5). (b) Double vortex rings formed in ethanol drop impact on the surface at a height of 150 mm (Supplementary Movie 6). (c) Triple vortex rings formed in water drop impact on the surface at a height of 100 mm (Supplementary Movie 7). Red arrows clearly show the formation of a single, double and triple rings. (d) Ultrafast imaging of vortex formation during the initial stage for water drop (with a diameter of 2.9 mm) impact at 80 mm height (Oh0.002). Yellow arrows clearly show the penetration of pool fluid into drop fluid. (e) Ultrafast imaging of the absence of vortex formation in the impact of a water–glycerol mixture (60 wt% of glycerol) drop (with a diameter of 2.8 mm) at 80 mm height (Oh0.02). (f) Comparison of the measured group velocities of the capillary waves with the values calculated for water–glycerol mixtures with a different liquid viscosities (μ) at an 80-mm impact height. The dotted line is the best fit for the values measured with allometric scaling: ugμ–0.98. (g) Comparison of the measured group velocities of the capillary waves with the values calculated for water at different impact velocities (U). The dotted line is the best fit for the values measured with allometric scaling: ugU1.13. (h) Phase diagram for the multiplicity of the vortex rings in terms of Oh and the Weber number (We). Three to ten experimental repetitions were performed for each data point to verify the repeatability. Scale bar, 100 μm long.

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