Figure 4 : Electron energy spectra and recollision dynamics calculated with M3C simulations.

From: Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres

Figure 4

(a) Recollision-resolved M3C energy spectra (CEP-averaged, I=3 × 1013 W cm−2) and respective SMM cutoffs for direct and rescattering electrons for 400 nm spheres. The index n indicates the number of recollisions with the sphere. The M3C cutoff (red circular symbol) is assigned to the energy where the spectrum of single recollision electrons (solid red curve) has dropped by a factor of 103. (b) CEP-resolved M3C energy spectra (n=1, colour coded) for the same parameters as in (a) for emission into the upper half space. Vertical dotted, dashed, and solid black curves indicate the SMM result for the CEP-dependent cutoff energy. The grey horizontal line marks the critical phase predicted by M3C. (c) Evolution of the linear (Mie solution) and full M3C near field at the outer surface for the critical phase and sampled under the critical angle; all other parameters are the same as in (a). (d) Radially resolved evolution of the nonlinear near-field for the same parameters as in (c) and critical radial trajectories from SMM and M3C (average over trajectories with E=Ec±1%). (e) CEP-dependent distributions of birth and recollision times of the M3C trajectories with E>0.8Ec, see blue box in (b), and their time averages (red lines); black lines show the SMM prediction for cutoff electrons; the M3C recollision time refers to the mean of re-entry and exit, see zoomed region of panel (d); the x=0 passage of the peak of the unperturbed field envelope defines the time reference.