Figure 2 : Directionality and phase-dependent switching.

From: Field propagation-induced directionality of carrier-envelope phase-controlled photoemission from nanospheres

Figure 2

(a,b) Measured angle and CEP-resolved electron yields of near-cutoff electrons (projected momenta with Eth=0.5Ec, discriminating electrons below the threshold energy Eth; sphere sizes and laser intensities as indicated. (c) Amplitudes A(θ) of harmonic fits (black) of the data in (a,b) with and critical emission angles (vertical dashed lines) as determined from the peaks of Gaussian fits of A(θ) (green and red curves) for upward and downward emission, respectively. Horizontal black curves in (a,b) show the fitted phase offsets ; white dots indicate the critical CEP values and critical emission angles for maximal upward emission. (df) same as (ac) as predicted from M3C simulations for the experimental parameters.