Table 1 Results from the estimation of natural and external trends in SLR.

From: Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise

Station Availability Hurst exponent α LAG1 autocorrelation c Observed trend (mm per year) and significance Natural trend (mm per year) External trend (mm per year)
   OBS ATM RES OBS ATM RES OBS Case 1* Case 2 Case 1 Case 2 Case 1 Case 2
Vlissingen 1900–2011 0.72 0.52 0.86 0.14 0.01 0.51 2.18 (1.00) (1.00) 0.66 0.80 1.52 1.38
Hoek van Holland 1900–2011 0.71 0.51 0.86 0.17 0.00 0.45 2.24 (1.00) (1.00) 0.69 0.81 1.54 1.42
Ijmuiden 1900–2011 0.73 0.52 0.90 0.16 0.01 0.51 2.04 (1.00) (1.00) 0.85 1.05 1.19 0.99
Den Helder 1900–2011 0.67 0.54 0.89 0.13 0.06 0.45 1.25 (1.00) (0.99) 0.64 0.89 0.61 0.36
Delfzijl 1900–2011 0.62 0.51 0.86 0.13 0.04 0.40 1.55 (1.00) (0.99) 0.59 0.98 0.96 0.57
Norderney 1900–2011 0.61 0.56 0.84 0.15 0.11 0.50 1.84 (1.00) (1.00) 0.60 0.91 1.25 0.94
Cuxhaven 1900–2011 0.60 0.56 0.82 0.16 0.11 0.50 1.76 (1.00) (0.99) 0.65 0.85 1.11 0.91
Esbjerg 1900–2011 0.57 0.56 0.80 0.15 0.11 0.43 0.71 (1.00) (0.81) 0.58 0.84 0.13
Hirtshals 1900–2011 0.65 0.56 0.86 0.20 0.14 0.37 1.17 (1.00) (0.99) 0.69 1.04 0.48 0.13
Aberdeen 1900–2011 0.73 0.50 0.88 0.21 0.05 0.39 1.79 (1.00) (1.00) 0.66 0.89 1.13 0.89
North Shields 1900–2011 0.88 0.52 0.96 0.35 0.04 0.53 2.29 (1.00) (1.00) 1.25 1.43 1.05 0.86
  1. The table provides an overview over the main values derived from an assessment of each tide gauge record in the North Sea. The Hurst exponents α are derived from a DFA2. All trends are calculated for the common period from 1900 to 2011 using a confidence level of 99% (P=0.99). The significance S of each trend is provided in brackets.
  2. *Case 1: integrated assessment.
  3. Case 2: separate assessment.