(a) Pictures of the EMG measurement system, using elastic conductor. Scale bars, 25 mm. (b) Organic amplifier circuit. Above, picture of organic amplifier circuit. Scale bar, 1 mm. Below, circuit diagram. (c) Performance of the organic pseudo-complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor inverter. Above, VOUT-VIN curve. Below, inverter gain. (d) Frequency dependence of the amplifier gain. (e) EMG signals obtained through the elastic conductor attached to a forearm while opening (I) and closing a hand (II). Upper black line is the unamplified signal and lower red line is the signal amplified with the organic amplifier. Signals from muscle activity are observed when the hand is closed.