Figure 3 : Mechanisms of the 2009–2010 extreme SLR event.

From: An extreme event of sea-level rise along the Northeast coast of North America in 2009–2010

Figure 3

(a) Sea-level increase (mm) between 2008 and 2010 from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO; shading) and TG stations (colour dots). The black line indicates the shelf break—500 m depth. (b) Steric sea-level anomalies (mm) in 2009 for the upper 2,000 m. (c) Correlation between the monthly AVISO and RAPID AMOC data for 2004–2012. (d) Correlation between the annual mean DSL and AMOC index (45°N) in the long-term control runs of the 10 GFDL and 14 CMIP5 models. The values show multi-model ensemble mean. See Supplementary Figs 7 and 8 for individual models. (e) Anomalies of sea-level pressure (shading; hPa) and wind stress (vector; N m−2) in 2009–2010 from the GFDL reanalysis. (f) Difference in sea-level pressure (shading; hPa) and wind stress (vector; N m−2) between the years of extreme positive and negative SLR at Boston. The results show the ensemble mean of the GFDL and CMIP5 models for 100-year control runs. See Supplementary Figs 10 and 11 for more details.