Table 2: Maximal absorption spectrum ( λ max) of long wavelength-sensitive opsins (LWS).

From: Mudskipper genomes provide insights into the terrestrial adaptation of amphibious fishes

Tuning siteBPPMHumanZebrafishMedakaGreenpufferFuguSticklebackAncestor
 LWS11LWS2LWS1LWS2LWS1LWS2LWS1LWS2LWS1LWS2LWSLWSLWSLWS
180AASASAAASSPASS
197HHHHHHHHHHHHHH
277YFYFYFYFYYYYYY
285TATTTATTTTTTTT
308AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Estimated λmax553531560546560531553546560560560+P553560560
  1. BP, B. pectinirostris; PM, P. magnuspinnatus.
  2. Note: The λmax of each LWS opsin is estimated by the ‘five-sites’ rule21,34. Influence of the proline (P) at position 180 in the greenpuffer is unknown.