Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Visible-light-enhanced gating effect at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface


Electrostatic gating field and light illumination are two widely used stimuli for semiconductor devices. Via capacitive effect, a gate field modifies the carrier density of the devices, while illumination generates extra carriers by exciting trapped electrons. Here we report an unusual illumination-enhanced gating effect in a two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, which has been the focus of emergent phenomena exploration. We find that light illumination decreases, rather than increases, the carrier density of the gas when the interface is negatively gated through the SrTiO3 layer, and the density drop can be 20 times as large as that caused by the conventional capacitive effect. This effect is further found to stem from an illumination-accelerated interface polarization, an originally extremely slow process. This unusual effect provides a promising controlling of the correlated oxide electronics in which a much larger gating capacity is demanding due to their intrinsic larger carrier density.


The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the heterointerfaces between complex oxides has received attention in recent years because of its implementation for novel physics and prospective applications1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. The 2DEG confined to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interfaces is a representative system that has been extensively studied, and exotic properties including two-dimensional superconductivity3, magnetism5, enhanced Rashba spin–orbital coupling6 and strong electrical field effect4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 have been observed. Among these, the field effect is particularly interesting. As already demonstrated, the transport behaviour can be tuned by a gate field across STO or LAO, undergoing a metal-to-insulator transition9 or a tunable superconducting transition3,13. On the other hand, a dramatic modification of the interfacial conductivity can also be gained by depositing polar molecules or charges above the LAO layer7,8. Obviously, gating effect has shown its potential in unravelling the emergent phenomena at complex oxide interfaces.

However, the electrical field effect for the complex oxide 2DEG is much more complicated than for the conventional semiconductor devices. In addition to electrons, there are many other factors such as ionic defects, trapped charges or ferroelectric instabilities in the system that can be severely affected by the applied electric field. As a consequence, significant hysteresis of interfacial conductivity can occur when cycling electrical bias through the STO crystal9 or scanning a biased tip across the LAO layer, the latter leads to conducting nanowires persisting for days10,11. A few recent reports9,14 even show that the field effect actually exhibits two steps: a fast process is followed by an extremely slow process that usually lasts for thousands of seconds but owns a tuning ability comparable to or even stronger than the fast one14. While the slow process yields additional freedom in controlling the physical properties of the 2DEG, its slow nature makes it hard to be exploited in any practical devices but causes an adverse influence to the reproducibility.

In this work, we report on a remarkable effect produced by combined electrical and optical stimuli for the 2DEGs at both amorphous and crystalline LAO/STO heterointerfaces (a-LAOSTO and c-LAO/STO, respectively). We found that an illumination of visible light drives the slow field-induced resistance growth into a great jump far beyond the scope of normal field effect, markedly enhancing the ability of the gate field to modulate charge carriers. The present work clearly demonstrates the mutual reinforcement of the effects of electrical gating and light illuminating on complex oxide interfaces.


Illumination-accelerated gating effect

Details for sample fabrication and resistive measurements are described in the Methods. Figure 1 shows the typical resistive responses of our devices to electrical and optical stimuli. As schemed in Fig. 1a, a gate voltage, VG, between −100 V and 100 V was applied to the back gate of STO while the a-LAO/STO interface was grounded and the sheet resistance, RS, was recorded in the presence/absence of a light illumination. In all cases, the leakage current (<7 nA) was much lower than the in-plane current applied for resistive measurements, 1 μA (Supplementary Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 1b,c, without illumination, the application of a VG=−80 V yields two distinct processes marked respectively by a slight jump and a followed steady increase of RS. The first minor jump is the normal gating effect, stemming from the field-induced charge density change in the backgate–interface capacitor. The latter process is extremely slow, lasting for >2,000 s without saturation and produces an RS increase much larger than the first jump. This process can be well described by the Curie–von Schweidler law RS(tt0)α, which implies a wide distribution of the energy barriers that impede the carrier depletion (see Supplementary Fig. 2)15.

Figure 1: Resistive responses to electrical and optical stimuli of the LAO/STO interface.
figure 1

(a) A sketch of the experimental set-up. (b) Sheet resistance of a-LAO/STO, recorded in the presence/absence of a light of P=32 mW (λ=532 nm) while VG switches among −80, 0 and +80 V. (c) Enlarged view of the two-step feature of RS without light illumination. (d) Gate dependence of normalized sheet resistance, RS(VG,P)/RS(0,0), recorded at the time of 300 s after the application of VG. Arrow marks the RS corresponding to VG=−5 V. (e) Sheet resistance of c-LAO/STO, recorded in the presence/absence of a light of P=32 mW (λ=532 nm) as VG switches among −200, 0 and +200 V. All measurements were conducted at room temperature.

Remarkably, such a field effect is significantly modified by light illumination. Aided by a light of 32 mW (λ=532 nm), as shown by the red curve in Fig. 1b, gate field drives RS into a sudden jump to a steady state of 200-fold resistance, that is, the slow process has been markedly accelerated by light illumination, and this change is reversible for the repeated on–off operations of the gate field. As summarized in Fig. 1d, a light of 32 mW pushes the RS(VG=−100 V,P)/RS(0,0) ratio from ~1.2 to ~202, amplifying the gating effect by ~170-fold. Moreover, even a VG as low as −5 V can cause a 17-fold RS growth (marked by an arrow). This bias is only one-tenth of that usually required to get comparable effect using a backgate without light9,16. The gating effect of positive VG was also enhanced by illumination but it is relatively weak (see Fig. 1b and Supplementary Figs 3 and 4). Similar illumination-enhanced gating effect is also observed in c-LAO/STO (Fig. 1f), suggesting that it is a quite universal phenomenon, independent of the characteristics of the electronic transport of the interface (it is semiconducting for a-LAO/STO and metallic for c-LAO/STO; refer to Supplementary Fig. 5) and the crystal structure of the LAO overlayer (crystalline or amorphous).

Carrier density tuning beyond capacitive effect

To gain a further understanding of this illumination effect, we examined the sheet carrier density, nS, by Hall measurement. From the linear RxyH relation in Fig. 2a, the initial nS can be deduced, and it is ~7 × 1012 cm−2, where Rxy is the Hall resistance. There are no detectable changes in the RxyH dependence measured immediately after the application of a |VG|=100 V, indicating that the change in carrier density is tiny. It is consistent with the result deduced from the capacitance data in Fig. 2c, for P=0, which is only ~4% of the initial nS, where Ca-LAO/STO is the capacitance of the backgate–interface capacitor, e is the electron charge and S≈5 mm2 is the interface area. In contrast, in a light of P=6 mW (the highest intensity available for our Hall-effect measurement system), a VG=−100 V reduces the nS from ~7.0 × 1012 to ~1.3 × 1012 cm−2 (Fig. 2b) and the mobility from ~25.8 to ~1.2 cm2 V−1 s−1 (deduced from the data in Fig. 2b). This extraordinarily large ΔnS is confirmed by the sudden Ca-LAO/STO drop shown in Fig. 2c for VG<−20 V and P=32 mW, which suggests the exhaustion of sheet carriers. A large ΔnS (~1.1 × 1013 cm−2 for a VG of −200 V) is also detected in illuminated c-LAO/STO (Supplementary Fig. 6). However, the illumination enhancement is almost absent when the interface is positively gated. In this case, as shown by the data of VG=0 (black) and 100 V (magenta) in Fig. 2a, ΔnS increases slightly and can be ascribed to the illumination-generated extra photocarriers.

Figure 2: Hall effect and capacitance measurements.
figure 2

(a) Hall resistance, Rxy, of a-LAO/STO measured with an in-plane current of 10 μA under different gating/illuminating conditions. Without light illumination the data for VG=−100 V cannot be distinguished from those for VG=0, and therefore are not shown here. (b) Carrier density and sheet resistance as functions of light power, acquired under a fixed VG of −100 V. Solid lines are guides for the eye. Dashed line is the extrapolated nSP relation. (c) Capacitance, Ca-LAO/STO, of a-LAO/STO as a function of gate voltage, measured under the a.c. amplitude of 0.5 V and frequency of 5 kHz. Labels in the figure denote light power (λ=532). (d) Carrier density change produced by capacitive effect, calculated by ΔnS=ε0εVG/d adopting the permittivity under a constant electrical field marked beside the curve and VG=100 V. Symbols are experimental values for |VG|=100 V extracted from literature, as indicated in the figure.

According to the capacitor model, the depleted carrier density by a negative VG is ΔnS=ε0ε|VG|/d, where ε is the relative dielectric constant of STO and d is the thickness of STO. Adopting the ε values in ref. 17, the tuned carrier density by the capacitive effect can be calculated. As shown in Fig. 2d, the illumination-enhanced gating effect is much stronger than the simple gating effect that is always well described by the conventional capacitive effect. This result strongly suggests that additional mechanisms are at work under light illumination.

To explore the origin of this unusual illumination-enhanced asymmetric gating effect, we examined the dependence of the field effect on light wavelength, λ. As shown in Fig. 3a, the tuned value of RS drops rapidly as λ increases from 532 to 980 nm, suggesting that the photoexcitation of trapped electrons play a key role in the observed effect, although, counter-intuitively, the photoexcitation process significantly decreases, rather than increases, nS. Furthermore, a strong-to-weak crossover of the illumination effect occurs at λ~850 nm (Fig. 3b, VG=−20 V), corresponding to a photon energy of ~1.4 eV. This value coincides well with the reported deep oxygen vacancy states with one trapped electron in STO18,19.

Figure 3: Field effect measured in different lights.
figure 3

(a) Sheet resistance of a-LAO/STO corresponding to the field switching between on and off states, collected at a constant light power (32 mW) but different wavelengths. For clarity, only the data for P=0 and λ=532 nm are shown for VG=+40 V. (b) Sheet resistance as a function of light wavelength, acquired at the time of 200 s for VG<0 and 1,000 s for VG>0. Solid lines are guides for the eye. All the measurements were conducted at room temperature.

Gating-induced and illuminating-enhanced lattice polarizations

As reported, oxygen vacancies (VO) tend to pile up close to the STO surface20,21,22,23 and drift slowly under electrical field24. A recent study has shown that the electromigration of oxygen vacancies can lead to a polarity-asymmetric interface polarization25, which was built up in >20 h under a strong field. This slow buildup of the polar phase is reminiscent of the slow gating process observed when only the electrical field is applied (Fig. 1b). It is therefore possible that the illumination-enhanced gating effect is triggered by the acceleration of the establishment process of this interface phase. Direct evidence comes from Fig. 4, where a field-induced structural deformation of a-LAO/STO is indicated by X-ray diffraction. Figure 4a is the experimental set-up for structural measurements. Figure 4b is the θ−2θ diffraction patterns, and Fig. 4c is the deduced out-of-plane lattice constant of STO, as a function of electric biases. When illuminated, as shown by Fig. 4b, a low-angle shoulder of the 002 reflection of STO emerges and develops above VG≈−300 V, indicating an out-of-plane lattice expansion. However, no structural changes are observed up to the gate bias of −700 V without illumination. This result indicates that the light illumination indeed helps the gate field in inducing a structural deformation. As revealed by the previous work25, the lattice expansion of STO is a signature of interface polarization25. The structural distortion could not be a thermal effect as it continues to remain once it has appeared even after the sample is shaded from light, and the illumination alone produces no effect on structure (see Supplementary Fig. 7). Notably, the threshold VG for structural deformation is much higher than that for remarkable resistance tuning. It may be a consequence of uneven gating due to preferential carrier exhaustion around electrode, which confines gate field to the close proximity of the electrode. The uneven tuning can be sensed by sheet resistance since the latter is susceptible to local environment but not by X-ray diffraction unless VG is so high that the strongly gated area has well outward extension. We also performed the X-ray diffraction measurements for a Ti (30 nm)/STO/Ti (200 nm) capacitor structure and observed a similar lattice expansion (Supplementary Fig. 7). Without uneven gating, here the interface phase appears under a VG below −200 V. Corresponding to the emergence of interface phase, forbidden shifts in Raman spectra were detected, implying an inversion symmetry breaking (Supplementary Fig. 8). These results strongly suggest that light illumination has greatly accelerated the formation of the interface polarization phase.

Figure 4: Light illumination acceleration of the field-induced structural deformation of STO.
figure 4

(a) Experiment set-up for the structural measurements of a-LAO/STO with simultaneously applied light illumination and gate field. (b) X-ray diffraction patterns of the 002 reflection of STO measured after a waiting time of 10 min upon the simultaneous application of light illumination (P=100 mW, λ=532 nm) and gate biases. The two shoulders developed on the low-angle side of the 002 reflection mark the lattice expansion in the near interface region of a-LAO/STO. Labels besides the curves indicate gate voltage. The total time required for each θ−2θ scanning is ~10 min. (c) A comparison of the lattice constants obtained with and without light illumination. The acceleration of the field-induced structural deformation by photoexcitation can be clearly seen. Solid lines are guides for the eye.


On the basis of the above analyses, we can present a scenario for the illumination-enhanced gating effect. As schemed in Fig. 5a, the oxygen vacancy concentration at the LAO/STO interface is considerably high due to the outward oxygen ion diffusion from the STO substrate during the deposition of the LAO overlayer, and the resulted electron doping leads to the 2DEG at the a-LAO/STO interface21,22,23 and might also contribute to the conduction of the c-LAO/STO interface. Without illumination, negative bias only slightly polarizes the interface region of STO (Fig. 5b), yielding the slow RS growth following the first sudden RS jump (Fig. 1c). Light illumination accelerates interface polarization by enhancing the electromigration of oxygen vacancies, probably by exciting the trapped electrons in deep oxygen vacancy states (Fig. 5c). This polarization yields an extra tuning to nS and a weakening of the interfacial confining well of 2DEG. These two effects markedly reduce nS, amplifying the gating effect.

Figure 5: Migration of oxygen vacancies under electrical field and light illumination.
figure 5

(a) The content of oxygen vacancy (marked by circled plus symbols) is considerably high at the LAO/STO interface due to the outward diffusion of oxygen ions from STO, resulting in electron doping (marked by circled minus symbols) and thus the 2DEG at the a-LAO/STO interface. The oxygen vacancy here may be mainly in the state with one deeply trapped electron, , the most favourable state when vacancy content is high27,28,29,30. (b) The inward migration of these interface oxygen vacancies under negative gate biases will induce an interface polarization phase25. Owing to the low mobility of s, however, it is difficult for the gate field alone to cause significant vacancy migration. As a result, a negative bias only slightly polarizes the interface region of STO, yielding a very weak tuning to sheet carriers. (c) Light illumination excites the trapped electron in , transitingthe latter into the state that is much more susceptible to external field. In this manner, it accelerates the electromigration of oxygen vacancies, thus the building up of the polarization phase that causes a strong extra tuning to sheet carriers.

Effect of light illumination on the electromigration of oxygen vacancies in STO can be identified from the transient leakage current recorded under a constant d.c. bias. As well established, prior to resistance degradation, a broad current peak will appear when the VOs in the near region of the anode reach cathode25,26. As shown by the Supplementary Fig. 9, for the STO biased by a VG of −600 V, the current peaks at ~580, ~115 and ~16 min for the light power of 0, 40 and 100 mW, that is, illumination indeed accelerates the migration of oxygen vacancies.

As revealed by ref. 25, the polarization will disappear in several seconds after removing the external field. This is consistent with our observation that RS quickly drops back when the gate bias is removed (Fig. 1b). No additional tuning is observed under positive gate fields since there are no structural changes (Fig. 4b). In conclusion, our present work has revealed a unique control of the 2DEG confined at the LAO/STO interface with complementary electric and light stimuli. The principle proven here could be extended to a wide variety of complex oxide systems with ferroelectric instabilities, pioneering a new avenue for the resistive tuning of oxide interfaces.


Sample fabrication

The samples a-LAO/STO were prepared by depositing an amorphous LAO layer, ~12 nm in thickness, on TiO2-termined (001)-STO substrates (3 × 5 × 0.5 mm3) using the pulsed laser (248 nm) ablation technique. In the deposition process, the substrate was kept at ambient temperature and the oxygen pressure at 10−3 mbar. The fluence of the laser pulses was 1.5 J cm−2 and the repetition rate was 1 Hz. The target–substrate separation was 4.5 cm. A shadow mask was employed to get the Hall-bar-shaped samples. For comparison, sample c-LAO/STO with a crystalline LAO overlayer (4 unit cells in thickness) was also prepared at a temperature of 800 °C and the oxygen pressure of 10−5 mbar. The fluence of the laser pulses was 0.7 J cm−2 and the repetition rate was 1 Hz. After deposition, the sample was in situ annealed in 200 mbar of O2 at 600 °C for 1 h and then cooled to room temperature in the same oxygen pressure. The detailed procedures for sample preparation can be found in ref. 21 for amorphous overlay and in ref. 7 for crystalline overlayer.


Ultrasonic Al wire bonding (20 μm in diameter) was used for electrode connection. Four-probe technique was adopted for resistance measurements. The four welding spots were well aligned and the separation between the neighbouring spots was ~0.4 mm. The formula of RS≈(L/W)R was adopted for the convention of four-probe resistance to sheet resistance, where L and W are, respectively, the long and wide dimensions of the measured plane. Transverse electrical field was applied to STO through an Ag electrode underneath STO and the LAO/STO interface was grounded. The direction from substrate to interface was defined as positive. The applied current for resistance measurements was 1 μA. Lasers with the wavelengths between 532 and 980 nm were used in the present experiments. The spot size of the light was ~0.4 mm in diameter, focusing on the space between two inner Al wires. Under the gate voltage of −100 V, the leakage current was ~0.7 nA without illumination and at most ~7 nA under light illumination (refer to Supplementary Fig. 1). The crystal structure of the gated c-LAO/STO was measured by a Bruker diffractometer (D8 Discover, Cu Kα radiation), using the X-ray parallelized and monochromatized by an asymmetric Ge 2202-Bounce monochromator. Capacitance was measured by the Precision Impedance Analyzer (Agilent 4294 A), adopting the a.c. amplitude of 0.5 V and the frequencies of 100 Hz and 5 kHz. The data were recorded after an interval of 60 s after the application of VG and the whole measurement from −40 V to 40 V takes 180 s. All data, except for the RST relations, were acquired at ambient temperature.

Additional information

How to cite this article: Lei, Y. et al. Visible-light-enhanced gating effect at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Nat. Commun. 5:5554 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6554 (2014).


  1. Hwang, H. Y. et al. Emergent phenomena at oxide interfaces. Nat. Mater. 11, 103–113 (2012).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Caviglia, A. D. et al. Two-dimensional quantum oscillations of the conductance at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 236802 (2010).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Reyren, N. et al. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides. Science 317, 1196–1199 (2007).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Caviglia, A. D. et al. Electric field control of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface ground state. Nature 456, 624–627 (2008).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Brinkman, A. et al. Magnetic effects at the interface between non-magnetic oxides. Nat. Mater. 6, 493–496 (2007).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Caviglia, A. D. et al. Tunable Rashba spin-orbit interaction at oxide interfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 126803 (2010).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Xie, Y. W. et al. Charge writing in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 surface. Nano Lett. 10, 2588–2591 (2010).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Xie, Y. W., Hikita, Y., Bell, C. & Hwang, H. Y. Control of electronic conduction at an oxide heterointerface using surface polar adsorbates. Nat. Commun. 2, 494 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Thiel, S. et al. Tunable quasi–two-dimensional electron gases in oxide heterostructures. Science 313, 1942–1945 (2006).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Cen, C. et al. Nanoscale control of an interfacial metal-insulator transition at room temperature. Nat. Mater. 7, 298–302 (2008).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Chen, Y. Z., Zhao, J. L., Sun, J. R., Pryds, N. & Shen, B. G. Resistance switching at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 . Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 123102 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cen, C., Thiel, S., Mannhart, J. & Levy, J. Oxide nanoelectronics on demand. Science 323, 1026–1030 (2009).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bell, C. et al. Mobility modulation by the electric field effect at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 226802 (2009).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Christensen, D. V. et al. Controlling interfacial states in amorphous/crystalline LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures by electric fields. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 021602 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Miranda, E., Mahata, C., Das, T. & Maiti, C. K. An extension of the Curie-von Schweidler law for the leakage current decay in MIS structures including progressive breakdown. Microelectron. Reliab. 51, 1535–1539 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ngai, J. H. et al. Electric field tuned crossover from classical to weakly localized quantum transport in electron doped SrTiO3 . Phys. Rev. B 81, 241307(R) (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Suzuki, S. et al. Fabrication and characterization of Ba12–xKxBiO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 all-oxide-type Schottky junctions. J. Appl. 81, 6830–6836 (1997).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Wang, X. et al. Static and ultrafast dynamics of defects of SrTiO3 in LaAlO3/SrTiO3heterostructures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081916 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Meevasana, M. et al. Creation and control of a two-dimensional electron liquid at the bare SrTiO3 surface. Nat. Mater. 10, 114–118 (2011).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Liu, Z. Q. et al. Metal-insulator transition in SrTiO3-xthin films induced by frozen-out carriers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146802 (2011).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Chen, Y. Z. et al. Metallic and insulating interfaces of amorphous SrTiO3-based oxide heterostructures. Nano Lett. 11, 3774–3778 (2011).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu, Z. Q. et al. Origin of the two-dimensional electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces: the role of oxygen vacancies and electronic reconstruction. Phys. Rev. X 3, 021010 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kalabukhov, A. et al. Effect of oxygen vacancies in the SrTiO3 substrate on the electrical properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Phys. Rev. B 75, 121404 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Meyer, R., Liedtke, R. & Waser, R. Oxygen vacancy migration and time-dependent leakage current behavior of Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 112904 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hanzig, J. et al. Migration-induced field-stabilized polar phase in strontium titanate single crystals at room temperature. Phys. Rev. B 88, 024104 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Meyer, R., Liedtke, R. & Waser, R. Oxygen vacancy migration and time-dependent leakage current behavior of Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 thin films. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 112904 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Cuong, D. D. et al. Oxygen vacancy clustering and electron localization in oxygen-deficient SrTiO3: LDA+U study. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 115503 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Ricci, D., Bano, G., Pacchioni, G. & Illas, F. Electronic structure of a neutral oxygen vacancy in SrTiO3 . Phys. Rev. B 68, 224105 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Cordero, F. Hopping and clustering of oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 by anelastic relaxation. Phys. Rev. B 76, 172106 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Muller, D. A. et al. Atomic-scale imaging of nanoengineered oxygen vacancy profiles in SrTiO3 . Nature 430, 657–661 (2004).

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work has been supported by the National Basic Research of China (2012CB925002, 2011CB921801) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11374348 and 11134007). Y.W.X. and H.Y.H. acknowledge the support from the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. J.R.S. thanks Professor J.W. Cai for his help in preparing the sample for structural analysis.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



J.R.S. conceived and designed the experiments, interpreted, together with Y.Z.C. and Y.W.X., the experimental results and prepared the manuscript. Y.Lei conducted the experiments. S.H.W. carried out the numerical calculation of capacitance. Y.Z.C. and N.P. provided the amorphous samples and undertook the XPS analysis. Y.W.X. and H.Y.H. provided the crystalline samples. Y. Li and J.W. characterized the sample via AFM. Y.S.C., Y. Lei and Y. Li performed the experiments for interface polarization. B.G.S. oversaw the project. All authors commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. R. Sun.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figures 1-9 and Supplementary References. (PDF 204 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lei, Y., Li, Y., Chen, Y. et al. Visible-light-enhanced gating effect at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Nat Commun 5, 5554 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:

Further reading


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing