(a) The pathway involved in AsA metabolism. (b) Heat map of RNA-Seq data for genes involved in AsA and sugar-related metabolism during jujube fruit ripening. Y, young fruit; WM, white mature fruit; HR, half-red fruit; FR, full red fruit. Scaled log2 expression values are shown from green to red, indicating low to high expression. GME, GDP-D-mannose 3′,5′-epimerase; GGP, GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase; VTC4, inositol-phosphate phosphatase/L-galactose 1-phosphate phosphatase; TAD, D-threo-aldose 1-dehydrogenase; Ga1LDH, L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase; MDHAR, monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH); AO, L-ascorbate oxidase; AP, L-ascorbate peroxidase; MIOX, inositol oxygenase; XET, xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase; PE, pectinesterase; BGluc, beta-glucosidase; BG2, beta-1,3-glucanase 2; GALE, UDP-glucose 4-epimerase; SPS, sucrose-phosphate synthase; SUS2, sucrose synthase; FBA, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase; GFS, GDP-L-fucose synthase; PFP, pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase; PGM, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase; PDC, pyruvate decarboxylase; PGK, phosphoglycerate kinase; ALDH, aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1; OT, oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit gamma; RFS, raffinose synthase; NRS/ER, 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase; AXS2, UDP-apiose/xylose synthase; UGT, UDP-glucosyltransferase; CesA, cellulose synthase A; MFS, MFS transporter. (c) Upper part, phylogenetic analysis of the MDHAR gene family in jujube and seven related species; Lower part, the location of eight MDHAR genes in two scaffolds.