(a) Average mussel density at the tipping point (marked by down arrows in Fig. 3, TP=tipping point). (b) Size of the bistable domain with respect to algal concentration. (c) Rate of pattern formation, which was calculated as the time required to reach stable spatial patterns when starting from a random initial distribution. (d) Recovery time after a large perturbation (30% reduction of mussel density). Each panel compares four model versions, where the colours indicate the types of patterns.