Table 1: Optimization of reaction conditions.

From: Efficient selective and atom economic catalytic conversion of glycerol to lactic acid

EntryBase (M)Base:glycerolSolventT (°C)Conv. (%)TON (LA)Selectivity
1KOH (8 M)0.58Neat1158.41,150>95
2NaOH (8 M)0.58Neat1150.7102>95
3LiOH (8 M)0.58Neat1152.130
4CaO (8 M)0.58Neat1151.420
6KOH (0.1 M)0.008Neat1150.1863
7KOH (0.5 M)0.036Neat1150.11472
8KOH (1 M)0.07Neat1150.23183
9KOH (2 M)0.15Neat1150.56388
10KOH (4 M)0.29Neat1151.114594
11KOH (8 M)0.58H2O/glycerol (1:9)1155.7779>95
12KOH (8 M)0.58H2O/glycerol (1:1)1154.5610>95
13*KOH (8 M)0.58Neat1155.2715>95
14KOH (8 M)0.58Neat1156.4873>95
15KOH (8 M)0.58Neat700.117>95
16KOH (8 M)0.58Neat14018.12,474>95
17KOH (8 M)0.58Neat16034.84,760>95
  1. Conv., conversion; LA, lactic acid; TON, turnover number.
  2. Reaction conditions: 3.78 g glycerol, 3 μmol 6 (0.007 mol%), 15 h (TON calculated for LA formation by 1H NMR spectroscopy using internal standard and confirmed by gas evolution quantified by gas burette measurements). Reactions carried out under N2 atmosphere and overall mass balance over 99%, unless otherwise noted. Maximum theoretical TON ~13,700.
  3. *Reaction carried out in air.
  4. Reaction carried out under nitrogen and exposed to air after 10 min.
  5. Mass balance=94%.