• A Corrigendum to this article was published on 16 October 2014

This article has been updated


In X-ray Fourier-transform holography, images are formed by exploiting the interference pattern between the X-rays scattered from the sample and a known reference wave. To date, this technique has only been possible with a limited set of special reference waves. We demonstrate X-ray Fourier-transform holography with an almost unrestricted choice for the reference wave, permitting experimental geometries to be designed according to the needs of each experiment and opening up new avenues to optimize signal-to-noise and resolution. The optimization of holographic references can aid the development of holographic techniques to meet the demands of resolution and fidelity required for single-shot imaging applications with X-ray lasers.

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Change history

  • 16 October 2014

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Emanuele Pedersoli, which was incorrectly given as Emmanuele Pedersoli. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.


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We thank Professor L.J. Allen for useful discussion and feedback. This research was supported under the Australian Research Council’s Centre of Excellence programme and DECRA funding schemes (Project Nos DE130100739 and DE140100624). FERMI project of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste is partially supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research under grant numbers FIRB-RBAP045JF2 and FIRB-RBAP06AWK3 and by the grant from Friuli Venezia Giulia Region: Nanotox 0060-2009. F.C., E.P. and L.R. thank N. Mahne, C. Svetina, M. Zangrando and the Fermi Commissioning Team for the valuable technical support during the measurement preparation.

Author information

Author notes

    • Andrew V. Martin
    •  & Adrian J. D’Alfonso

    These authors contributed equally to this work


  1. ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia

    • Andrew V. Martin
  2. School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia

    • Adrian J. D’Alfonso
  3. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg 22607, Germany

    • Fenglin Wang
    • , Richard Bean
    • , Richard A. Kirian
    • , Francesco Stellato
    • , Chun Hong Yoon
    •  & Henry N. Chapman
  4. Fermi, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste 34149, Italy

    • Flavio Capotondi
    • , Emanuele Pedersoli
    •  & Lorenzo Raimondi
  5. European XFEL GmbH, Albert Einstein Ring 19, Hamburg 22761, Germany

    • Chun Hong Yoon
  6. University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg 22761, Germany

    • Henry N. Chapman


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The reconstruction theory and methods were developed by A.V.M. and A.J.D. The samples were designed by A.V.M. and F.W. and they were prepared by F.S. The experiment was performed by F.W., R.B., F.C., R.A.K., E.P., L.R. and C.H.Y. in consultation with H.N.C. The reconstructions were performed by A.V.M. and A.J.D., who also wrote the manuscript with input from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrew V. Martin.

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