(a) Low magnification STEM image showing that the PBCO barrier is continuous over long lateral distances. A high resolution STEM image is also shown. Mn oxidation state across the stacking, obtained through the analysis of the EELS O K-edge fine structure32. (b) Magnetization loop of a LCMO (8 nm)/PBCO (6 nm)/LCMO (25 nm) trilayer obtained from fitting (see Methods section) polarized neutron reflectometry data, after saturating in a negative field applied in the  direction at 12 K (solid lines are guides for the eye). (c) Evolution of the angle between substrate  direction and the magnetizations of top (red symbols) and bottom (blue symbols) LCMO electrodes during magnetization switching as a function of magnetic field applied along  (that is, at 45°). At the second field point (H=18.4 Oe, open symbols), the data can be described by a model including two large domains with different magnetization vectors, rather than a single domain. The solid black line represents values calculated by minimizing anisotropy and Zeeman energy terms for the bottom LCMO layer’s angle, assuming uniaxial anisotropy along the  direction.