Figure 4: Vocalizations and close interest behaviour of males and females in response to out-group stimuli. | Nature Communications

Figure 4: Vocalizations and close interest behaviour of males and females in response to out-group stimuli.

From: Ravens notice dominance reversals among conspecifics within and outside their social group

Figure 4

Mean±s.e.m. difference between playback and baseline (Δ) of (a) vocalizations and (b) close interest behaviour of males (n=7) and females (n=9), for playbacks simulating expected (purple bars) and unexpected (orange bars) dominance interactions of in-group individuals. For clarity, we added 2 to these means. GLMM and post hoc Wilcoxon-signed ranks tests: *P<0.05, #0.05<P<0.10.

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