The colon and caecum from groups of mice were removed and processed. (a) TNF-α, (b) IFN-γ, (c) IL-17 and (d) MCP-1 were measured from the colon (left panels) and caecum (right panels) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data are the mean with s.e. from four mice per group and from two independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001 (compared with uninfected controls; one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post test). Ctrl, control.