Table 5: Predictions evaluated in this study.

From: Kinship reduces alloparental care in cooperative cichlids where helpers pay-to-stay

 Pay-to-stayKin-selectionGroup augmentationThis study
Eviction rateNK>K or NK=K*NK>KNK=KNK=K
Alloparental brood care of subordinatesNK>KNK<KNK=KNK>K
Alloparental brood care of dominantsNK=KNK<KNK=KNK=K
Reciprocation of alloparental brood careNoYesYesNo
Reproductive success of dominantsNK=KNK<KNK=KNK=K
Reproductive success of subordinatesNo predictionNK<KNK=KNK<K
  1. References: Pay-to-stay 26–28, Kin-selection 1, Group augmentation 21.
  2. *Under pay-to-stay dominants are expected to evict unrelated subordinates more readily than related ones if equal amounts of help are provided; however, increased helping rates of non-kin can conceal such differences and may lead to similar eviction rates of related and unrelated subordinates under a coerced helping paradigm, because enhanced helping might compensate for lacking indirect benefits.