Table 4: Effects of female kinship and female body length on female reproduction.

From: Kinship reduces alloparental care in cooperative cichlids where helpers pay-to-stay

 Wald χ2Coefficient±s.e.P
Dominant female number of clutches produced (N=68)
 Intercept3−0.491±0.2900.09
 Duration33.90.0090±0.0015<0.001
 Female body size0.38 0.54
 Kinship0.005 0.95
    
Dominant female clutch size (N=40, n=128)
 Intercept27.32.340±0.448<0.001
 Female body size23.40.036±0.007<0.001
 Kinship0.6 0.44
    
Dominant female egg mass (N=39, n=123)
 Intercept78.70.355±0.040<0.001
 Female body size3.70.0016±0.00080.054
 Kinship2.7 0.10
    
Subordinate female number of clutches produced (N=68)
 Intercept16−4.08±1.022<0.001
 Duration17.50.0104±0.0025<0.001
 Female body size5.40.048±0.0210.02
 Kinship0.2 0.63
    
Subordinate female clutch size (N=17, n=25)
 Intercept4.31.974±0.9560.039
 Female body size2.80.036±0.0210.095
 Kinship0.02 0.88
    
Subordinate female egg mass (N=16, n=21)
 Intercept40.215±0.0800.044
 Female body size17.40.0075±0.0018<0.001
 Kinship9.5−0.1004±0.03250.002
  1. df=1 for each independent variable, ‘Female body size’ and ‘Duration’ are covariates. Duration refers to the experimental period in days (the groups were observed for 29 to 256 days; the analyses exclude one kin group that had been terminated earlier). Coefficients for non-kin; kin is the reference category.
  2. Depicted are six separate models; the interaction kinship × female body size was not significant in all cases (P>0.13). Nonsignificant effects are shown with their statistics for entry into the models, significant effects are shown with their coefficients. GLMs with log-link, the scaling parameter adjusted using the deviance method for clutches produced; GEEs with log-link, the scaling parameter adjusted using the deviance method for clutch sizes; GEEs with identity-link, the scaling parameter adjusted using the deviance method for egg masses. The GEEs contain female identifiers as subjects (in brackets: N=number of females, n=number of clutches sampled). Egg mass is average mass of a single egg for that particular female.