Table 2: Results for the isomerization/epimerization of sugars.

From: Sn-Beta zeolites with borate salts catalyse the epimerization of carbohydrates via an intramolecular carbon shift

EntrySugarSugar:SB(mol:mol)CatalystTemperature(K)Time(min)Conversion*(%)Product distributionTotal sugar
ReagentIsomerEpimerYield
       (%)(%)(%)(%)
       GlucoseFructoseMannose 
Borate content study
  1Glucose4:1Sn-Beta35860168511499
  2Glucose10:1Sn-Beta35860317632191
  3Glucose20:1Sn-Beta35860327741988
  4Glucose40:1Sn-Beta358602878101292
           
Catalyst study
  5Glucose4:1Sn-MCM-413831203876111381
  6Glucose4:1Sn-MFI3581207970395
  7Glucose4:1Ti-Beta358120238701388
  8GlucoseNoneSn-MCM-413831208936199
  9GlucoseNoneSn-MFI3581204981198
  10GlucoseNoneTi-Beta3581209926299
           
       XyloseXyluloseLyxose 
  11Xylose4:1Sn-MFI358120208412495
  12XyloseNoneSn-MFI358120237915697
  1. Reactions were performed with a 5 wt% sugar feed (~2 ml), using the corresponding amount of catalyst to maintain a 100:1 sugar:metal molar ratio (~40 mg).*Conversion is defined as the ratio of moles of sugar consumed to moles sugar added initially, expressed as a percentage.
  2. Product distribution is the molar ratio of each sugar to the sum of the three sugars expressed as a percentage.
  3. Sugar yield is the ratio of the sum of moles of the reagent, isomer and epimer sugars to moles of sugar added initially, expressed as a percentage.