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Reactions were performed with a 5 wt% sugar feed (~2 ml), using the corresponding amount of catalyst to maintain a 100:1 sugar:metal molar ratio (~40 mg).
*Conversion is defined as the ratio of moles of sugar consumed to moles sugar added initially, expressed as a percentage.
†Product distribution is the molar ratio of each sugar to the sum of the three sugars expressed as a percentage.
‡Sugar yield is the ratio of the sum of moles of the reagent, isomer and epimer sugars to moles of sugar added initially, expressed as a percentage.
§The epimerization product distributions at the thermodynamic equilibrium are: Glucose:Mannose=70:30, Xylose:Lyxose=67:33, and Arabinose:Ribose=69:31. Values obtained from Gibbs free energies reported by Angyal46.
For this entry the Reagent and Epimer columns in the product distribution are exchanged so that they match the type of sugar used.