a) Schematic model of our VML treatment procedure using bioconstructs. TA muscles are isolated from donor mice (1). These muscles are used to obtain either: decellularized scaffolds, MuSCs, MRCs or ECM proteins to generate hydrogels (2). Scaffolds are reconstituted with isolated cells and hydrogel to generate bioconstructs (3). Bioconstructs are cultured in a bioreactor while the hydrogel cured, allowing media to perfuse across the bioconstructs (4). Once ready, bioconstructs are transplanted into VML injured TA muscles (5). ( b) In vivo force production measurements of TA muscles treated with different bioconstructs following VML injury. After 30 days, the distal tendons were attached to a force transducer and contractions were induced through sciatic nerve stimulation ( n=8). ( c) Ex vivo force production measurements. The same muscles measured in b were then dissected and cultured in a chamber. The distal tendons were attached to a transducer and contractions were induced electrically in the culture bath ( n=8). ( d) The mass of each TA muscle was measured following ex vivo force measurements ( n=6). In ( b– d) average values of muscles that did not received VML injuries are labelled ‘uninjured’ and are indicated by a blue dotted line; average values of muscles that received a VML injury without any treatment are labelled ‘VML’ and are indicated by a red dotted line. Data are±s.e.m. For statistical analysis, t-tests were used. ** P<0.001; **** P<0.00001, n.s.: not significant.