Figure 1 : Study design.

From: Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

Figure 1

One week before delivery (embryonic days 12–14), pregnant dams received either penicillin V (AB, n=4) or penicillin V and Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 (AB/JB1, n=3) in drinking water. The control (CT, n=5) group received only regular water. The treatment (Tx) was continued up until weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21). After weaning, the pups (n=72) were separated from the dams and received regular water. At 6 weeks old (postnatal day 42, PND42), the offspring was subjected to a battery of behavioural tests. After the last test, females were euthanized while males were subjected to the microdefeat paradigm. Forty-eight hours following microdefeat, males were euthanized and blood, intestinal and brain tissues were collected.