Figure 4 : Analysis of causality between reef accretion and abundance of herbivores or dominant coral.

From: Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

Figure 4

(a) Parrotfish relative abundance and reef accretion rate. (b) Urchin abundance and reef accretion rate. (c) Parrotfish relative abundance and urchin abundance. (d) Branching Porites coral relative abundance and reef accretion rate. Lines and shaded regions show mean±s.d. from 100 bootstrapped iterations. Significant causal forcing (*) determined from bootstrap test with 100 iterations, and indicated when the Pearson correlation coefficient is significantly greater than zero for larger sample sizes (number of core samples, including all spatial replicates in the composite time series) and when correlation coefficient increases significantly with increasing number of core samples.