Vector2 (V2) or SNAIL was transfected in CNE2 and SUNE1 cells that stably overexpressed the vector (V) or HOPX. (a–c) The migration and invasion abilities were measured using wound healing assays (× 200) (a) and Transwell assays (× 200) without (b) or with (c) Matrigel. Scale bar, 100 μm; mean±s.d.; *P<0.01 compared with V+V2; #P<0.01 compared with the HOPX+V2; Student’s t-tests. (d) ECADHERIN, VIMENTIN, SNAIL, HOPX and GAPDH expression levels were measured via western blotting. These data are representative of three independent experiments.