Costs are subdivided into ‘goods and services’ (yellow) and ‘human health’ (red), ‘regulating services’ (sensu non-commercial, but potentially monetizable, such as carbon regulation and pollination not otherwise quantified in agricultural yield estimates; blue) and ‘ecological’ costs (not typically monetizable; green). Owing mainly to a lack of monetary estimates, we could not compile costs for the categories and subcategories coloured in grey. The inner circle (darkest colours) encapsulates costs associated with prevention; the middle circle (mid-range colours) includes costs associated with damage from invasive insects; the outer circle (lightest colours) covers costs associated with responses or follow-up to invasive insect incursions. The outermost purple arrow indicates the general increase in our ability to estimate monetizable costs, and the direct relevance to human commerce and well being. DALY, disability-adjusted life year (lifespan lost because of burden of insect-borne disease; not assessed).