Table 2 Variables used to explain human footprint change across countries.

From: Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation

Variables HF decreasing HF increasing
Mean S.d Mean S.d
Net trade (million $) 1,278 11,727 −1,765 14,310
Net trade (million tons) 16.78 74.72 −7.36 63.02
GDP ($ per capita) 29,784 15,159 25,145 16,745
Urban (% population) 76.64 12.50 69.60 16.89
HDI (non-income) 0.84 0.07 0.79 0.09
Control of corruption 1.02 1.06 0.26 0.93
Protected (% land) 13.61 8.67 14.62 11.02
  1. HF, human footprint.
  2. Values presented are means and s.d.’s for variables used to explain HF change for 73 rapidly growing economies. Data are summarized for countries where HF is decreasing (environmental improvement; n=26) and where HF is increasing (environmental deterioration; n=47).