(a) Comparison between theory, numerics and experiments for the dependence of hf on R, for the representative case of VPS-32. The results are consistent with the power law hf∼R1/2 and in agreement with equations (1) and (6). Inset: Final thickness of shells obtained by pouring VPS-32 on the outside or the underside of a hemisphere with R=25 mm. The error bars of the data correspond to the standard deviation of three thickness measurements performed at three different locations of the shell near the apex (φ=0°). (b) Final thickness of a shell fabricated by pouring PDMS on the outside of a hemisphere with R=38 mm compared to equation (6); solid line. The dashed line is the prediction obtained by refining the expansion to the next order, , which adds to the terms in the parentheses of equation (6); see Supplementary Note 4 for details. The error bars of the data for hf (y-axis) correspond to the standard deviation on multiple measurements. The error bars of the data for φ (x-axis) correspond to the size of the angular range used to bin the data.