Abstract
Magnetic doping is expected to open a band gap at the Dirac point of topological insulators by breaking timereversal symmetry and to enable novel topological phases. Epitaxial (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} is a prototypical magnetic topological insulator with a pronounced surface band gap of ∼100 meV. We show that this gap is neither due to ferromagnetic order in the bulk or at the surface nor to the local magnetic moment of the Mn, making the system unsuitable for realizing the novel phases. We further show that Mn doping does not affect the inverted bulk band gap and the system remains topologically nontrivial. We suggest that strong resonant scattering processes cause the gap at the Dirac point and support this by the observation of ingap states using resonant photoemission. Our findings establish a mechanism for gap opening in topological surface states which challenges the currently known conditions for topological protection.
Introduction
The topological surface state (TSS) of the threedimensional topological insulator (3D TI) Bi_{2}Se_{3} forms a Dirac cone in the band dispersion E(k_{}) of electron energy E versus wave vector component k_{} parallel to the surface^{1}. Differently from graphene, the electron spin is nondegenerate and locked to k_{}, and the Dirac crossing point is protected by timereversal symmetry (TRS) against distortions of the system^{1,2}. This stability has been theoretically investigated demonstrating that nonmagnetic impurities at the surface and in the bulk can form a resonance in the surfacestate density of states (DOS) without opening a band gap^{3,4,5}. A magnetic field breaks TRS lifting the Kramers degeneracy E(k_{}, ↑)=E(−k_{}, ↓) between up (↑) and down (↓) spins, and can open a band gap at the Dirac point^{1}. For the twodimensional quantumspinHall system HgTe, the effect of a perpendicular magnetic field on the topologically protected edge state has been demonstrated successfully^{6}, and similar effects are expected from magnetic impurities in this system^{7}. In subsequent studies on HgTe, the effect of the magnetic field was much smaller, and recently in an inverted electronhole bilayer from InAs/GaSb, helical edge states proved robust in perpendicular magnetic fields of 8 T (ref. 8). At the surface of a 3D TI, calculations show that magnetic impurities can open a gap at the Dirac point and exhibit ferromagnetic order with perpendicular anisotropy mediated by the TSS through Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) exchange coupling^{4,9,10}.
3D TIs with magnetic impurities have been studied by angleresolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The magnetic impurities have been incorporated into the bulk^{11} and at the surface of Bi_{2}Se_{3} (ref. 10). For Fe impurities, the opening of large surface band gaps of ∼100 meV was reported in both cases^{10,11}. In a previous work, however, we found that Fe deposited on Bi_{2}Se_{3} does not open a gap for a wide range of preparation conditions, revealing a surprising robustness of the TSS towards magnetic moments^{12}. This conclusion also extends to Gd/ Bi_{2}Se_{3} (ref. 13) and Fe/Bi_{2}Te_{3} (ref. 14).
The absence of a surface band gap is consistent with the recent finding that Fe on Bi_{2}Se_{3} does not favour a magnetic anisotropy perpendicular to the surface, at least in the dilute limit^{15}. In this respect, bulk impurities in TIs have an advantage over surface impurities in that ferromagnetic order and perpendicular magnetic anisotropies have been achieved in the bulk systems^{11,16,17,18,19,20,21}. Fe incorporated in bulk Bi_{2}Te_{3} is known to order ferromagnetically with a Curie temperature (T_{C}) of ∼12 K for concentrations of x=0.04 showing an easy axis perpendicular to the base plane^{16,17}. On the other hand, (Bi_{1−x}Fe_{x})_{2}Se_{3} has not been found to be ferromagnetic at temperatures above 2 K (ref. 17). For x=0.16 and 0.25, ferromagnetic order was found at 2 K (ref. 11). By ARPES^{22}, surfacestate band gaps in (Bi_{1−x}Fe_{x})_{2}Se_{3} were reported and assigned to a magnetic origin for Fe concentrations from x=0.05 to 0.25 including nonferromagnetic concentrations such as x=0.12 with a band gap of 45 meV (ref. 11). These band gaps have been attributed to shortrange magnetic order. Concerning Mn incorporation, bulk (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} with x=0.02 has been shown to exhibit a surface band gap with an occupied width of 7 meV (ref. 11), which was suggested as an indication of ferromagnetic order induced by the TSS^{11}. However, much larger surface band gaps were observed for ndoped (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} films^{20}, where ferromagnetic order of Mn at the surface was found to be strongly enhanced with T_{C} up to ∼45 K. The ferromagnetic order resulted in an unusual spin texture of the TSS. The T_{C} at the surface was much higher than in the bulk^{20}, which was partially attributed to Mn surface accumulation. A strong enhancement of the surface T_{C} was also predicted by meanfield theory for this system (for example, from 73 K (bulk) to 103 K (surface))^{23}. Magnetically doped TIs with ferromagnetic order are important as realizations of novel topological phases. When spin degeneracy is lifted by the exchange splitting, bulk band inversion can occur selectively for one spin. If also the Fermi level is in the band gap, as predicted for Cr and Fe in Bi_{2}Se_{3} (ref. 24), this gives rise to an integer quantized Hall conductance σ_{xy} in thin films termed the quantized anomalous Hall effect^{7,24}. This has recently been reported for Cr in (Bi,Sb)_{2}Te_{3} (ref. 25). When a perpendicular magnetization breaks TRS at the surface of a bulk TI, the resulting mass and surface band gap give rise to quantized edge states. In this case σ_{xy} is halfinteger quantized yielding a half quantum Hall effect^{26} which can be probed at ferromagnetic domain boundaries at the surface^{27} and leads to exotic topological magnetoelectric effects such as the pointchargeinduced image magnetic monopole^{28,29}. Another topological phase predicted for magnetically doped Bi_{2}Se_{3} is the realization of a 3D Weyl fermion system in which the Diraclike dispersions become a property of the bulk^{30}.
Here we present a detailed investigation on the correlation between the TSS and magnetic properties in the BiMnSe system, where the magnetic impurity Mn is introduced in the bulk of ∼0.4 μm thick (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} epilayers with concentrations up to x=0.08. By ARPES we find remarkably large band gaps of ∼200 meV persisting up to temperatures of 300 K far above T_{C}, which is found to be ∼10 K at the surface showing only a limited enhancement by ≤4 K over the bulk T_{C}. We find that the magnitude of the band gaps by far exceeds that expected from TRS breaking due to magnetic order. By ARPES from quantumwell states we exclude that Mn changes the inverted bulk band gap. Using resonant photoemission and ab initio calculations we conclude that, instead, impurityinduced resonance states destroy the Dirac point of the TSS. We further support our conclusion by showing that extremely lowbulk concentrations of nonmagnetic In do also open a surface band gap in Bi_{2}Se_{3}. Our findings have profound implications for the understanding of the conditions for topological protection.
Results
Concentration and temperature dependence of surface band gap
Figure 1 shows Mnconcentrationdependent highresolution ARPES dispersions of the TSS and bulk valenceband (BVB) states of (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} with x up to 0.08 measured at 12 K and 50 eV photon energy. At this energy, contributions from the bulkconduction band (BCB) do not appear due to the dependence of the photoemission transitions on the component of the electron wave vector perpendicular to the surface k_{⊥} (ref. 22), but the BCB is partially occupied as data at 21 eV photon energy reveal (Supplementary Fig. 1). The pure Bi_{2}Se_{3} film (Fig. 1a) is ndoped and exhibits a wellresolved Dirac point with high photoemission intensity at a binding energy of E_{D} ∼0.4 eV that is seen as an intense peak in the energydistribution curve at zero momentum superimposed as red curve on the righthand side of the panel. The intact and bright Dirac point marked by a horizontal dashed line in Fig. 1a demonstrates that the TSS is gapless in Bi_{2}Se_{3}. At larger binding energies, the lower half of the Dirac cone overlaps with the BVB, which is observed for all (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3} samples (Figs 1b–d). Increasing Mn concentration, we find a gradual upward shift of the band edges in energy, revealing a progressive ptype doping (hole doping). Most notably, a surface band gap opens at the Dirac point with increasing Mn content. In each energydistribution curve, the opening of the gap is also evident from the development of an intensity dip at the binding energy of the original Dirac point. Thus, the energy separation between the upper Dirac band minimum and the energy position of the intensity dip is about half of the gap size. Note that the horizontal dashed lines in Figs 1b–d highlight the minimum limit of the gap size after taking into account the contribution from the linewidth broadening to the ARPES spectra (see Supplementary Note 1 and Supplementary Fig. 2). The surface band gap rapidly increases with Mn content and exceeds 200 meV for x=0.08. For x=0.02, the suppression of the Dirac point intensity as compared with the undoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} film indicates the existence of a small gap. This is consistent with the fact that the TSS dispersion becomes slightly parabolic and is characterized by an increased effective mass of m* ≈ 0.09m_{e} for x=0.02. This value increases further to ≈0.15m_{e} for x=0.08, where m_{e} is the freeelectron mass.
The observed surface band gaps are similar to those previously reported^{20}, which have been attributed to longrange ferromagnetism and TRS breaking of the topologically protected surface state^{20}. Figures 2a–d show highresolution ARPES dispersions of the TSS, as well as the normalemission spectra through the Dirac point at temperatures of 12 and 300 K for x=0.08 (see also Supplementary Fig. 3). Strikingly, there is no significant change as temperature is raised, and very clearly the band gap in the TSS persists up to room temperature. Moreover, we find a similar behaviour for the whole sample series independently of the Mn content, which challenges the dominant role of ferromagnetic order in inducing the band gap in the TSS, unless the surface T_{C} is above room temperature.
Bulk and surface magnetism
We begin in Fig. 3 with characterizing the bulk magnetic properties using superconducting quantuminterference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The comparison of measurements with inplane and outofplane applied magnetic field in Fig. 3a shows that at a temperature of 2 K the bulk easy axis lies in the surface plane. This holds irrespective of the Mn concentration. Since the opening of a gap at the Dirac point requires a magnetization perpendicular to the surface^{9}, we concentrate in the following on the outofplane component of the magnetization. In the hysteresis loops displayed in Fig. 3b measured with an outofplane applied magnetic field at different temperatures, we observe a narrow magnetic hysteresis at 4.2 K, whereas paramagnetic behaviour emerges at 7 K once the ferromagnetic transition has been crossed (inset in Fig. 3b). For a better determination of T_{C} we present in Fig. 3c modified Arrott plots according to a 3D Heisenberg ferromagnet, normalized to the mass of the sample, with exponents β=0.348 and γ=1.41, from which we deduce T_{C}=5.5 K in the bulk (see also Supplementary Fig. 4). This is well below the temperature of our ARPES measurements shown in Figs 1 and 2.
The only remaining possibility that longrange ferromagnetism opens the gap at the Dirac point is an enhanced surface magnetism with magnetization perpendicular to the surface^{9,20,23}. This cannot be verified directly by the bulksensitive SQUID magnetometry. Therefore, we perform Xray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Mn L_{2,3}edges to probe the nearsurface ferromagnetic order. The detection by total electron yield leads to a probing depth in the nanometre range. Figure 4a shows for x=0.04 the normalized intensity of the Mn L_{2,3} absorption edges obtained upon reversal of the photon helicity at a temperature of 5 K with an outofplane applied magnetic field of 3 T. The XMCD difference spectrum is shown in Fig. 4b, with the normalized XMCD difference signal following one part of the outofplane hysteresis as a function of the applied magnetic field as inset. The temperature dependence of the XMCD signal measured in remanence (0 T applied magnetic field) is presented in Fig. 4c for Mn concentrations of x=0.04 and 0.08. This signal is obtained after switching off an applied magnetic field of 5 T perpendicular to the surface, and represents the remanent XMCD, which is proportional to the remanent magnetization of the film surface. We clearly observe a ferromagnetic Mn component in the remanent XMCD appearing around 640 eV which becomes increasingly more pronounced at lower temperatures. The lineshape of the XMCD spectrum is similar to that of Mn in GaAs^{31}, indicating a predominant d^{5} configuration. More specifically, the lineshape compares rather well with Mn in Bi_{2}Te_{3} for which the comparison with an Anderson impurity model recently gave a superposition of 16% d^{4}, 58% d^{5} and 26% d^{6} character^{32}. The ferromagnetic Mn component shows surface ferromagnetic order in the remanent XMCD only below 10 K for Mn concentrations of x=0.04 and 0.08 (inset in Fig. 4c). On one hand, this result is not inconsistent with the predicted strongsurface enhancement of T_{C} since the enhancement effect vanishes already when chemical potential and Dirac point differ by 0.2 eV (ref. 23). On the other hand, our XMCD result means that the magnetically induced gap would have to close above 10 K.
Having established that the bulk and surface magnetic properties of our samples are very similar, as a next step, we performed fieldcooling experiments to reexamine the bulk magnetic properties. Figure 4d shows fieldcooled SQUID data for an applied magnetic field of 10 mT parallel and perpendicular to the surface plane. Above T_{C}, there is no preferential orientation of the anisotropy axis perpendicular to the surface. Additional zerofieldcooled SQUID data compare rather well with these results (Supplementary Fig. 5). Further XMCD measurements under an inplane and outofplane applied magnetic field are consistent with the SQUID data and are shown in Supplementary Fig. 6. These XMCD and SQUID results strongly suggest that above T_{C} also shortrange static magnetic order does not play a role at the surface or in the bulk, respectively (see Supplementary Note 2), and that domains with partial or full outofplane magnetic order are absent. We further support this conclusion by additional XMCD measurements carried out by the means of Xray photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCDPEEM) at room temperature, with a lateral resolution of ∼20 nm. Figure 4e shows the XMCD image which due to the light incidence (16° grazing) is sensitve to both in and outofplane components of the magnetization, with additional data given in Supplementary Figs 7,8. The XMCD image displays no magnetic domains at room temperature thus also excluding shortrange static inhomogeneous magnetic order with magnetization partially or fully in or out of the surface plane, at least within our lateral resolution (see Supplementary Note 3 for details). A similar conclusion can be drawn regarding outofplane magnetic shortrange fluctuations (see discussion in Supplementary Note 4 and Supplementary Fig. 9). All our observations taken together lead us to the important conclusion that the surface band gap is not due to magnetism and, thus, the novel topological phases cannot be realized with (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3}.
Absence of topological phase transition with concentration
There exists an alternative nonmagnetic explanation for the surface band gap. It is in principle possible that the incorporation of Mn changes the bulk band structure and even reverts the bulk band inversion, rendering Mndoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} topologically trivial. This topological phase transition with concentration is, for example, the basis for the HgTe quantum spinHall insulator^{6}. Interestingly, it has been argued that a gap in the TSS can be a precursor of a reversed bulk band inversion, as discussed for TlBi(S_{1−x}Se_{x})_{2} (ref. 33). Indium substitution in Bi_{2}Se_{3} behaves similarly, and leads to a topologicaltotrivial quantumphase transition with an inversion point between 3 and 7% In in thin films^{34}. Figure 5 shows that the bulk band gap stays constant within 4% of its value for 8% Mn incorporation. This statement is possible because at low photon energies changes in the bulk band gap are traced most precisely from quantumwell states in normal emission (k_{}=0). The simultaneous quantization of BCB and BVB is created by surface band bending after adsorption of small amounts of residual gas^{35}. This means that the scenario of reversed bulk band inversion does not hold here.
Another remarkable feature is the measured size of the surface band gap. A perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has recently been predicted by densityfunctional theory (DFT) for Co in Bi_{2}Se_{3} (ref. 36) as well as for 0.25 monolayer Co adsorbed on the surface in substitutional sites, leading to a surface band gap of ∼9 meV (ref. 36), which, however, is one order of magnitude smaller than the gaps observed here. For (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Te_{3}, a surface band gap of 16 meV has been calculated under the condition of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy^{37}. For Mn in Bi_{2}Se_{3} at the energetically favoured Bisubstitutional sites, an inplane magnetic anisotropy is predicted^{38}. The size of the gap at the Dirac point is only 4 meV (ref. 38). Perpendicular anisotropy and ferromagnetic order are absent in our samples at the temperature of the ARPES measurements.
Role of the local magnetic moment and intercalation scenarios
If the large local magnetic moment of the Mn is responsible for the measured band gaps via TRS breaking, the effect should be equal or larger when Mn is deposited directly on the surface. Here we argue in the following way: If TRS is broken only due to the Mn magnetic moment, we do not require hybridization to open a gap. By depositing Mn we create a completely different environment for the Mn at the surface, allowing us to understand whether the Mn magnetic moment is solely responsible for the opening of large surface band gaps via TRS breaking and, ideally, without hybridization playing a role. Mn is very well suited for such comparison, as due to the high stability of its halffilled d^{5} configuration, its high magnetic moment is to a large extent independent of the atomic environment and the resulting hybridization. DFT obtains 4.0 μ_{B} for most substitutional sites (except for the hypothetical Sesubstitutional site with still 3.0 μ_{B}) and only for interstitial Mn the moment peaks with 5.0 μ_{B} (ref. 38). Mn deposition was performed at ∼30 K in order to keep the Mn atoms isolated from each other and on the surface. As the XMCD showed a predominant d^{5} configuration for Mn bulk impurities, which is most stable, we can assume the same magnetic moment for Mn impurities deposited on the surface. Figure 6 shows that a similar pdoping occurs as with the Mn in the bulk. In another respect, the magnetic moments do not act in a similar way as in the bulk. Even 30% of a Mn monolayer on Bi_{2}Se_{3} does not open a band gap at the Dirac point. This result is similar to what we have observed for Fe on Bi_{2}Se_{3} (ref. 12) and Bi_{2}Te_{3} (ref. 14).
Most recently, the appearance of surface band gaps in ARPES at the Dirac point of the TSS has been discussed based on different mechanisms. One is momentum fluctuations of the surface Dirac fermions in real space as observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements of Mndoped Bi_{2}Te_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} bulk single crystals^{39}. However, these fluctuations amount to 16 meV (ref. 39), much less than the present band gaps. Another mechanism is toplayer relaxation, that is, breaking of the vanderWaals bond between quintuple layers during cleavage of bulk crystals as proposed in Xu et al.^{20} This would open a gap due to hybridization of TSS’s through the layer^{40} but such an effect does not occur for epitaxial layers where no sample cleavage is used for surface preparation.
If such a separation of quintuple layers occurs, it is more likely caused by the Mn. Principally, intercalated Mn in the vanderWaals gaps could separate quintuple layers electronically, although such effect has not been seen in experiments yet. At these new interfaces TSS’s could form and if they would behave like in ultrathin Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, they would hybridize and open a band gap^{40}. However, band gaps of the order of ∼100 meV would correspond to an unrealistic Mn intercalation pattern grouping three quintuple layers when compared with the films of Zhang et al.^{40} In order to estimate the amount of Mn intercalation, we have analysed the change of the bulk lattice constant in our samples by Xray diffraction (see Supplementary Note 5, Supplementary Figs 10–13 and Supplementary Tables 1,2). We find that the clattice constant increases by ∼0.15% for 4% Mn and by ∼0.45% for 8% Mn. If we would assume that this is completely due to an expansion of the vanderWaals gaps, the interlayer distance would increase by only ∼1.8% for 4% Mn and by less than ∼5% for 8% Mn. According to DFT, intercalation of transition metals into the first vanderWaals gap of Bi_{2}Se_{3} leads to an expansion between 10 and 20% (ref. 41). New surfacestate features can appear inside the bulk band gap but in order to be split remarkably off the BVB and BCB edges, expansions between 20 and 50% are required^{41}. In addition, we point out that, despite our observation of a large surface band gap at room temperature, we observe a nearly zero spin polarization perpendicular to the surface (Supplementary Fig. 14). The absence of a hedgehog spin texture pinpoints a nonTRS breaking mechanism underlying the origin of the gap, a fact which is consistent with our conclusions derived from the magnetic properties. Moreover, it is understood that we cannot verify a small magnetic band gap opening of few meV as calculated in Schmidt et al.^{36} and Henk et al.^{37} because much larger gaps are present in the whole temperature range.
Topological protection beyond the continuum model
As we find that neither ferromagnetic order in the bulk or at the surface, nor the local magnetic moment of the Mn are causing the large band gaps that we observe, as we can exclude the nonmagnetic explanation of a reversal of the bulk band inversion and as we do not find sufficient indications for the nonmagnetic explanation of surfacestate hybridization by vanderWaalsgap expansion, we point out a different mechanism based on impurityinduced resonance states that locally destroy the Dirac point.
In fact, recently the treatment of the topological protection in the continuum model^{3,4,5} has been extended for finite bulk band gaps^{42,43}. As a result, surface^{42} and bulk impurities^{43} can mediate scattering processes via bulk states and the localized impurityinduced resonance states emerging at and around the Dirac point lead to a local destruction of the topological protection of the Dirac point. The resulting band gap opening depends on the resonance energy, impurity strength U as well as spatial location of the impurities^{42,43}. A typical gap size is of the order of 100 meV (ref. 42). Moreover, the gap does not rely on a particular magnetic property of the impurity and, therefore, the mechanism should apply for magnetic impurities as well. The model can also explain the absence of the gap when Mn impurities are placed on the surface, since bulklike resonance states do not form when Mn is placed only on the surface. A definite assignment, however, requires realistic electronic structure calculations since a simple atomic Mn d^{5} configuration does not lead to states at the Dirac point.
To identify impurity resonances, we calculated for 8% Mn in Bi_{2}Se_{3} at the Bisubstitutional sites the corresponding DOS by ab initio theory. The model structure used in the calculations is shown in Fig. 7a, where Bi atoms (yellow) acquire Mn character (blue wedges). The results of the calculation are shown in Fig. 7b, where it is seen that Mn impurity states (blue) strongly contribute to the total DOS (red) near the BVB maximum. The Mn impurity states in the gap are clearly identified by assuming ferromagnetic order and subtracting the minority from majority spin DOS. In experiment, impurityband states are difficult to observe as the example of Ga_{1−x}Mn_{x}As shows^{44}, where—similarly to the present case—impurity states emerge near the BVB maximum. There are, in fact, indications for the impurity resonances in our data. If we look at the photonenergy dependence from 16 to 21 eV in the ARPES results shown in Supplementary Fig. 15, we see that the surface band gap is only well defined with respect to the minimum of the upper Dirac cone and consistent for 16–21 eV as well as 50 eV (for 50 eV see Figs 1, 2, where the BCB does not appear). The lower Dirac cone exhibits despite its twodimensional nature a photonenergy (wave vector perpendicular to the surface, k_{⊥}) dependence when Mn is incorporated. The reason for this difference is that the lower Dirac cone strongly overlaps with the BVB while the upper Dirac cone does not overlap with the BCB. This can also be seen in Fig. 5, where an apparent band gap of ∼200 meV occurs for 2% Mn at hν=16 eV. At this small concentration, such an apparent gap seems to be nearly closed at 18 eV, where the suppression of the Dirac point intensity and the more parabolic TSS dispersion as compared with the undoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} film indicates the existence of a small gap, in agreement with the results of Fig. 1. Note that the minimum band gap in the photonenergy dependence defines the gap size (see Supplementary Fig. 16). The minimum gap size observed at low photon energies agrees well with the one obtained at 50 eV. At 8% Mn, the surface band gap opens at all photon energies and reaches a minimum of ∼200 meV, that is, it is determined rather unambiguously, but some intensity appears in the surface band gap. Such intensity also appears in Xu et al.^{20} The role of the impurity resonance is exactly to couple the TSS to bulk states. This 3D coupling is naturally different for the upper and lower Dirac cone due to the different bulk overlap and thus seen as the photonenergy dependence of the lower half of the Dirac cone.
We applied resonant photoemission which fortunately is comparatively strong for Mn due to its halffilled dshell. Figures 7c and d show for 8% Mn offresonant (hν=48 eV) and onresonant photoemission (50 eV) measurements via the Mn 3p core level, focusing on the region of the surface gap, respectively. The spectra were normalized to the photon flux after taking into account the photonenergy dependence of the photoionization cross sections of Bi 6p and Se 4p, respectively. Subtracting offresonant from onresonant data allows us to visualize directly the contribution from impurity resonances in the ARPES spectrum, as there is enhanced photoemission from dlike Mn states through decay of electrons that are excited via 3p–3d transitions (Fig. 7e). The difference spectrum shown in Fig. 7f reveals the existence of impurity resonances inside the surface band gap and near the valenceband maximum. The resonances are seen in blue contrast and are marked with arrows, similar to the calculations shown in Fig. 7b. The unexpectedly strong dispersion of the resonant states with wave vector k_{} is in qualitative agreement with our onestep model photoemission calculations (see Supplementary Fig. 17 and Supplementary Note 6), and additionally supports the physical picture of Mninduced coupling to the bulk states. We should emphasize that the Mn d^{5} configuration confirmed by our XMCD measurements offers much fewer states in the energy range of the Dirac cone than the other magnetic transition metals. The fact that already Mn breaks the Dirac cone indicates that the present result is of general importance for TIs doped with magnetic transition metals.
As nonmagnetic control experiment we have chosen thick Indoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} bulk samples which give rise to a trivial phase close to ∼5% In concentration. Supplementary Fig. 18 shows that a large band gap of the order of ∼100 meV appears at the Dirac point already for a much smaller In concentration, namely 2%, far away from the inversion point of the topological quantumphase transition (see Supplementary Note 7 and Supplementary Fig. 19 for more details). In addition, spinresolved ARPES measurements around k_{}=0 for Indoped samples (Supplementary Fig. 14) reveal that the outofplane spin polarization is zero, similarly to the result for the gapped Dirac cone in Mndoped samples. Interestingly, the size of the band gap for 2% In is of the same order as the one for 8% Mn whereas no gap appears for 4% Sn (Supplementary Fig. 18). This indicates that the concentration range at which the large surface gap develops varies from dopant to dopant. On the basis of ideas proposed recently^{42,43}, this might be associated with the impuritydependent strength U, regardless whether the dopant is magnetic or not. Our control experiments demonstrate the existence of a mechanism for surface band gap opening which is not directly connected to longrange or local magnetic properties. Although it is not possible to directly search for In impurity resonances in the photoemission experiment as there is no resonant photoemission condition available, for completeness we point out that our conclusion on the nonmagnetic origin of the surface band gap in Mndoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} films would not have been possible unless several findings in our experiment differed from previous experiments^{20}. This refers to the inplane magnetic anisotropy, the absence of a temperature dependence of the gap, a much lower T_{C}, no outofplane spin polarization at the gapped Dirac point, no enhanced surface magnetism, a photonenergy dependence of the band gap, and an available resonant condition via the Mn 3p core level allowing us to directly observe the contribution from ingap states.
To summarize, we revealed the opening of large surface band gaps in the TSS of Mndoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} epilayers that strongly increase with increasing Mn content. We find ferromagnetic hysteresis at low temperatures, with the magnetization oriented parallel to the film surface. Magnetic surface enhancement is absent. Even above the ferromagnetic transition, we observe surface band gaps which are one order of magnitude larger than the magnetic gaps theoretically predicted and, moreover, they do not show notable temperature dependence. No indication for a Mninduced reversal of the bulk band inversion and no significant enhancement of the surface magnetic ordering transition with respect to the bulk are found. Control experiments with nonmagnetic bulk impurities, conducted in the topological phase, reveal that surface band gaps of the order of ∼100 meV can be created without magnetic moments. In line with recent theoretical predictions, we conclude that the band gap opening up to room temperature in Mndoped films is not induced by ferromagnetic order and that even the presence of magnetic moments is not required. Our results are important in the context of topological protection and provide strong circumstantial evidence that Mndoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} is not suited for observing the quantized anomalous Hall effect or the half quantum Hall effect.
Methods
Sample growth and structural characterization
The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (111)oriented BaF_{2} substrates at a substrate temperature of 360 °C using Bi_{2}Se_{3}, Mn and Se effusion cells. The Mn concentration was varied between 0 and 8%, and a twodimensional growth was observed by in situ reflection highenergy electron diffraction in all cases (see Supplementary Fig. 20 and Supplementary Note 8). All samples were single phase as indicated by Xray diffraction. After growth and cooling to room temperature, the ∼0.4μmthick epilayers were in situ capped by an amorphous 50nm thick Se layer, which was desorbed inside the ARPES and XMCD chambers by carefully annealing at ∼230 °C for ∼1 h. The Mn concentrations determined by corelevel photoemission were in good agreement with those obtained from energy dispersive microanalysis, indicating no significant Mn accumulation at the surface of the samples (see Supplementary Fig. 21 and Supplementary Note 9).
Highresolution and spinresolved ARPES
Temperaturedependent ARPES measurements were performed at the UE112PGM2a beamline of BESSY II at pressures better than 1 × 10^{−10} mbar using ppolarized undulator radiation. Photoelectrons were detected with a Scienta R8000 electron energy analyser and the spinresolved spectra were obtained with a Motttype spin polarimeter coupled to the hemispherical analyser. For the spinresolved measurements of Mndoped Bi_{2}Se_{3} samples, a magnetic field of +0.3 T was applied perpendicular to the surface plane at 20 K right before the acquisition of the spectra. Overall resolutions of ARPES measurements were 5 meV (energy) and 0.3° (angular). Resolutions for spinresolved ARPES were 80 meV (energy) and 0.75° (angular).
Magnetic characterization
The characterization of the bulk magnetic properties was done by SQUID magnetometry. The bulk magnetization was recorded as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field applied either perpendicular (outofplane) or parallel (inplane) to the surface of the films. The diamagnetic contribution of the BaF_{2} substrate was derived from the fielddependent magnetization curves at room temperature and subtracted from all data. The characterization of the surface magnetic properties was done by XMCD and XMCDPEEM measurements at the UE46PGM1 and UE49PGM1a beamlines of BESSY II, respectively. The experiments were performed using circularly polarized undulator radiation and under the same pressure conditions as the ARPES measurements. The XMCD spectra were taken using a highfield diffractometer as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the XMCDPEEM measurements were performed at room temperature and under grazing incidence (16°) with a lateral resolution of ∼20 nm.
Theoretical calculations
The onestep model photoemission calculations were performed using the results of ab initio theory as an input, and taking into account wave vector and energydependent transition matrix elements. The ab initio calculations were performed within the coherentpotential approximation using the Munich SPRKKR program package^{45,46}, with spinorbit coupling included by solving the fourcomponent Dirac equation.
Additional information
How to cite this article: SánchezBarriga, J. et al. Nonmagnetic band gap at the Dirac point of the magnetic topological insulator (Bi_{1x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3}. Nat. Commun. 7:10559 doi: 10.1038/ncomms10559 (2016).
References
Hasan, M. Z. & Kane, C. L. Topological insulators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
Qi, X.L. & Zhang, S.C. Topological insulators and superconductors. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
Lee, W. C., Wu, C., Arovas, D. P. & Zhang, S. C. Quasiparticle interference on the surface of the topological insulator Bi2Te3 . Phys. Rev. B 80, 245439 (2009).
Biswas, R. R. & Balatsky, A. V. Impurityinduced states on the surface of threedimensional topological insulators. Phys. Rev. B 81, 233405 (2010).
Lu, J., Shan, W.Y., Lu, H.Z. & Shen, S.Q. Nonmagnetic impurities and ingap bound states in topological insulators. New J. Phys. 13, 103016 (2011).
König, M. et al. Quantum spin Hall insulator state in HgTe quantum wells. Science 318, 766–770 (2007).
Liu, C.X., Qi, X.L., Dai, X., Fang, Z. & Zhang, S.C. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in Hg1−yMnyTe quantum wells. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 146802 (2008).
Du, L., Knez, I., Sullivan, G. & Du, R.R. Robust helical edge transport in gated InAs/GaSb bilayers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 096802 (2015).
Liu, Q., Liu, C. X., Xu, C. K., Qi, X. L. & Zhang, S. C. Magnetic impurities on the surface of a topological insulator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 156603 (2009).
Wray, L. A. et al. A topological insulator surface under strong Coulomb, magnetic and disorder perturbations. Nat. Phys. 7, 32–37 (2011).
Chen, Y. L. et al. Massive Dirac fermion on the surface of a magnetically doped topological insulator. Science 329, 659–662 (2010).
Scholz, M. R. et al. Tolerance of topological surface states towards magnetic moments: Fe on Bi2Se3 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 256810 (2012).
Valla, T., Pan, Z.H., Gardner, D., Lee, Y. S. & Chu, S. Photoemission Spectroscopy of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the surface of the Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117601 (2012).
Scholz, M. R. et al. Intact Dirac cone of Bi2Te3 covered with a monolayer Fe. Phys. Status Solidi RRL 7, 139–141 (2013).
Honolka, J. et al. Inplane magnetic anisotropy of Fe atoms on Bi2Se3 (111). Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 256811 (2012).
Kulbachinskii, V. A. et al. Ferromagnetic transition in the new diluted magnetic semiconductor pBi2−xFexTe3 . Phys. Lett. A 285, 173–176 (2001).
Kulbachinskii, V. A. et al. Ferromagnetism in new diluted magnetic semiconductor Bi2−xFexTe3 . Physica B 311, 292–297 (2002).
Hor, Y. S. et al. Development of ferromagnetism in the doped topological insulator Bi2−xFexTe3 . Phys. Rev. B 81, 195203 (2010).
Dyck, J. S., Hájek, P., Lošták, P. & Uher, C. Diluted magnetic semiconductors based on Sb2−xVxTe3 (0.01<x<0.03). Phys. Rev. B 65, 115212 (2002).
Xu, S.Y. et al. Hedgehog spin texture and Berry's phase tuning in a magnetic topological insulator. Nat. Phys. 8, 616–622 (2012).
Checkelsky, J. G., Ye, J., Onose, Y., Iwasa, Y. & Tokura, Y. Diracfermionmediated ferromagnetism in a topological insulator. Nat. Phys. 8, 729–733 (2012).
Hüfner, S. Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications Springer (1995).
Rosenberg, G. & Franz, M. Surface magnetic ordering in topological insulators with bulk magnetic dopants. Phys. Rev. B 85, 195119 (2012).
Yu, R. et al. Quantized anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators. Science 329, 61–64 (2010).
Chang, C.Z. et al. Experimental observation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic topological insulator. Science 340, 167–170 (2013).
Qi, X. L., Hughes, T. L. & Zhang, S. C. Topological field theory of timereversal invariant insulators. Phys. Rev. B 78, 195424 (2008).
Pankratov, O. A. Supersymmetric inhomogeneous semiconductor structures and the nature of a parity anomaly in (2+1) electrodynamics. Phys. Lett. A 121, 360–366 (1987).
Qi, X.L., Li, R., Zang, J. & Zhang, S.C. Inducing a magnetic monopole with topological surface states. Science 323, 1184–1187 (2009).
Zang, J. & Nagaosa, N. Monopole current and unconventional Hall response on a topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 81, 245125 (2010).
Cho, G. Y. Possible topological phases of bulk magnetically doped Bi2Se3: turning a topological band insulator into the Weyl semimetal. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.1939 (2011).
Rader, O. et al. Identification of extrinsic Mn contributions in Ga1−xMnxAs by fielddependent magnetic circular xray dichroism. J. Electron Spectr. Relat. Phenom. 144, 789–792 (2005).
Watson, M. D. et al. Study of the structural, electric and magnetic properties of Mndoped Bi2Te3 single crystals. New J. Phys. 15, 103016 (2013).
Sato, T. et al. Unexpected mass acquisition of Dirac fermions at the quantum phase transition of a topological insulator. Nat. Phys. 7, 840–844 (2011).
Brahlek, M. et al. Topologicalmetal to bandinsulator transition in (Bi1−xInx)2Se3 thin films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 186403 (2012).
Bianchi, M., Hatch, R. C., Mi, J., Iversen, B. B. & Hofmann, P. Simultaneous quantization of bulk conduction and valence states through adsorption of nonmagnetic impurities on Bi2Se3 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086802 (2011).
Schmidt, T. M., Miwa, R. H. & Fazzio, A. Spin texture and magnetic anisotropy of Co impurities in Bi2Se3 topological insulators. Phys. Rev. B 84, 245418 (2011).
Henk, J. et al. Topological character and magnetism of the Dirac state in Mndoped Bi2Te3 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 076801 (2012).
Abdalla, L. B., Seixas, L., Schmidt, T. M., Miwa, R. H. & Fazzio, A. Topological insulator Bi2Se3(111) surface doped with transition metals: an abinitio investigation. Phys. Rev. B 88, 045312 (2013).
Beidenkopf, H. et al. Spatial fluctuations of helical Dirac fermions on the surface of topological insulators. Nat. Phys. 7, 939–943 (2011).
Zhang, Y. et al. Crossover of the threedimensional topological insulator Bi2Se3 to the twodimensional limit. Nat. Phys. 6, 584–588 (2010).
Eremeev, S. V., Vergniory, M. G., Menshchikova, T. V., Shaposhnikov, A. A. & Chulkov, E. V. The effect of van der Waal's gap expansions on the surface electronic structure of layered topological insulators. New J. Phys. 14, 113030 (2012).
BlackSchaffer, A. M. & Balatsky, A. V. Strong potential impurities on the surface of a topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 85, 121103(R) (2012).
BlackSchaffer, A. M. & Balatsky, A. V. Subsurface impurities and vacancies in a threedimensional topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 86, 115433 (2012).
Gray, A. X. et al. Bulk electronic structure of the dilute magnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs through hard xray angleresolved photoemission. Nat. Mater. 11, 957–962 (2012).
Ebert, H., Ködderitzsch, D. & Minár, J. Calculating condensed matter properties using the KKR–Green’s function method–recent developments and applications. Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 096501 (2011).
Ebert, H. et al. The Munich SPRKKR package, version 6.3. Available at http://ebert.cup.unimuenchen.de/SPRKKR.
Acknowledgements
Financial support from the priority program SPP 1666 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. EB154/261 and RA1041/71) and the Impulsund Vernetzungsfonds der HelmholtzGemeinschaft (Grant No. HRJRG408) is gratefully acknowledged. J.M. is supported by the CENTEM (CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0088) and CENTEM PLUS (LO1402) projects, cofunded by the ERDF as part of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports OP RDI programme. V.H. acknowledges the support of the Czech Science Foundation (project 1408124S). G.S., H.S., R.K. and G.B. acknowledge support of the Austrian Science Funds (project SFB 025, IRON).
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Contributions
J.S.B. and A.V. performed the photoemission experiments; G.S., G.B. and L.V.Y. provided samples and performed the growth and characterization; H.S., R.K. and A.N. performed the SQUID measurements; O.C. and V.H. performed Xray diffraction measurements; J.S.B., E.S. and E.W. performed the XMCD measurements; J.S.B., A.A.Ü. and S.V. performed the XMCDPEEM measurements; J.M., M.D., J.B. and H.E. carried out the calculations; J.S.B. and E.G. performed the numerical simulations; J.S.B. performed data analysis and figure planning; J.S.B. and O.R. performed draft planning and wrote the manuscript with input from all the authors; J.S.B. and O.R. were responsible for the conception and the overall direction of the study.
Corresponding authors
Ethics declarations
Competing interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Supplementary information
Supplementary Information
Supplementary Figures 121, Supplementary Tables 12, Supplementary Notes 19 and Supplementary References (PDF 4853 kb)
Rights and permissions
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
About this article
Cite this article
SánchezBarriga, J., Varykhalov, A., Springholz, G. et al. Nonmagnetic band gap at the Dirac point of the magnetic topological insulator (Bi_{1−x}Mn_{x})_{2}Se_{3}. Nat Commun 7, 10559 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10559
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10559
This article is cited by

Robust behavior and spintexture stability of the topological surface state in Bi2Se3 upon deposition of gold
npj Quantum Materials (2022)

Charge transfer induced symmetry breaking in GaN/Bi2Se3 topological heterostructure device
npj 2D Materials and Applications (2022)

Emergent flat band electronic structure in a VSe2/Bi2Se3 heterostructure
Communications Materials (2021)

Unveiling quasiparticle dynamics of topological insulators through Bayesian modelling
Communications Physics (2021)

Nature of the Dirac gap modulation and surface magnetic interaction in axion antiferromagnetic topological insulator $${\hbox {MnBi}}_2 {\hbox {Te}}_4$$
Scientific Reports (2020)
Comments
By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.