(a) The β-keratins in black font belong to G. japonicus, those in red belong to An. carolinensis and those in blue belong to Al. sinensis. Gene copy number is listed in parentheses. The green background denotes β-keratins in scales and claws. The grey background denotes β-keratins in setae. The blue background denotes β-keratins in digital scales and pad lamella for supporting setae. A schematic diagram of toe of G. japonicus, An. carolinensis and Al. sinensis, which possess branched setae, unbranched setae and no setae are presented, respectively. The setae of gecko G. japonicus are ∼60 μm in length, and that in An. carolinensis is ∼25 μm. (b) Synteny diagram of β-keratin genes in A. carolinensis (upper line: GL343369, blue: 23 β-keratin genes) and G. japonicus (lower line: scaffold 426, red: 48 β-keratins).