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Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture

An Erratum to this article was published on 28 January 2015

This article has been updated


Tower, ground-based and satellite observations indicate that tropical deforestation results in warmer, drier conditions at the local scale. Understanding the regional or global impacts of deforestation on climate, and ultimately on agriculture, requires modelling. General circulation models show that completely deforesting the tropics could result in global warming equivalent to that caused by burning of fossil fuels since 1850, with more warming and considerable drying in the tropics. More realistic scenarios of deforestation yield less warming and less drying, suggesting critical thresholds beyond which rainfall is substantially reduced. In regional, mesoscale models that capture topography and vegetation-based discontinuities, small clearings can actually enhance rainfall. At this smaller scale as well, a critical deforestation threshold exists, beyond which rainfall declines. Future agricultural productivity in the tropics is at risk from a deforestation-induced increase in mean temperature and the associated heat extremes and from a decline in mean rainfall or rainfall frequency. Through teleconnections, negative impacts on agriculture could extend well beyond the tropics.

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Figure 1: Extratropical effects on precipitation due to deforestation in each of the three major tropical regions.
Figure 2: Effect of tropical deforestation on rainfall at a continental scale.
Figure 3: Effect of pattern and total extent of deforestation on rainfall at continental scales.
Figure 4: Critical patch size at continental scales.
Figure 5: Atmospheric dynamics induced by the boundary between forest and non-forest.
Figure 6: Effect of increasing patch size on rainfall at a local scale.

Change history

  • 18 December 2014

    In the print version of this Review, the 'published online' date should read 18 December 2014. The online versions are correct.


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Many thanks to Somnath Baidya Roy, Penny Davies, Stephan DeWekker, Donna Lee, Anastassia Makarieva, Antonio Nobre, Jan Pokorny, David Werth and Daniel Zarin. Lia Cattaneo, Christopher Fender, Megan McGroddy, Amber Slatosky, University of Virginia and the Climate and Land Use Alliance provided critical support.

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Correspondence to Deborah Lawrence.

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Lawrence, D., Vandecar, K. Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture. Nature Clim Change 5, 27–36 (2015).

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