Costello, A. et al. Managing the health effects of climate change: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission. Lancet 373, 1693–1733 (2009).
Key paper describing the health impacts of climate change.
Kahn Ribeiro, S. et al. in IPCC Climate Change 2007: Mitigation (eds Metz, B. et al.) Ch. 5 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).
IEA. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: Highlights (IEA/OECD, 2012).
Santos, G., Behrendt, H. & Teytelboym, A. Part II: Policy instruments for sustainable road transport. Res.Transport. Econ. 28, 46–91 (2010).
Santos, G., Behrendt, H., Maconi, L., Shirvani, T. & Teytelboym, A. Part I: Externalities and economic policies in road transport. Res.Transport. Econ. 28, 2–45 (2010).
Gross, R., Heptonstall, P., Anable, J., Greenacre, P. & E4tech. What Policies are Effective at Reducing Carbon Emissions Ffrom Surface Passenger Transport? (UK Energy Research Centre, 2009).
Systematic review of policies to reduce carbon emissions mainly in light passenger transport.
IPCC Climate Change 2007: Mitigation (eds Metz, B. et al.) (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007).
Woodcock, J., Banister, D., Edwards, P., Prentice, A. M. & Roberts, I. Energy and transport. Lancet 370, 1078–1088 (2007).
Key paper outlining the relationship between transport and health.
Ogilvie, D., Egan, M., Hamilton, V. & Petticrew, M. Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars: systematic review. Br. Med. J. 329, 763 (2004).
Hosking, J., Macmillan, A., Connor, J., Bullen, C. & Ameratunga, S. Organisational travel plans for improving health. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005575.pub3 (2010).
Sallis, J. F., Bauman, A. & Pratt, M. Environmental and policy interventions to promote physical activity. Am. J. Prev. Med. 15, 379–397 (1998).
Hamer, M. & Chida, Y. Active commuting and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analytic review. Prev. Med. 46, 9–13 (2008).
Egan, M., Petticrew, M., Ogilvie, D. & Hamilton, V. New roads and human health: a systematic review. Am. J. Public Health 93, 1463–1471 (2003).
Saunders, L. E., Green, J. M., Petticrew, M. P., Steinbach, R. & Roberts, H. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies. PLoS ONE 8, e69912 (2013).
Wanner, M., Gotschi, T., Martin-Diener, E., Kahlmeier, S. & Martin, B. W. Active transport, physical activity, and body weight in adults: a systematic review. Am. J. Prev. Med. 42, 493–502 (2012).
Yang, L., Sahlqvist, S., McMinn, A., Griffin, S. J. & Ogilvie, D. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review. Br. Med. J. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c5293 (2010).
Ogilvie, D. et al. Interventions to promote walking: systematic review. Br. Med. J. 334, 1204 (2007).
Levy, J. I., Buonocore, J. J. & von Stackelberg, K. Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment. Environ. Health http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-65 (2010).
Morrison, D. S., Petticrew, M. & Thomson, H. What are the most effective ways of improving population health through transport interventions? Evidence from systematic reviews. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 57, 327–333 (2003).
Thomson, H., Jepson, R., Hurley, F. & Douglas, M. Assessing the unintended health impacts of road transport policies and interventions: translating research evidence for use in policy and practice. BMC Public Health http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-339 (2008).
Kpodonu, J., Ramaiah, V. G., Rodriguez-Lopez, J. A. & Diethrich, E. B. Endovascular management of recurrent adult coarctation of the aorta. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 90, 1716–1720 (2010).
Douglas, M. & Thomson, H. Health impact assessment of transport initiatives: A guide. (NHS Scotland and MRC Social & Public health Sciences Unit, Institute of Occupational Medicine, 2007).
Woodcock, J. et al. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport. Lancet 374, 1930–1943 (2009).
Models the health impacts in London and Delhi of policies to reduce carbon emissions, showing that they are substantial but context-specific.
Haines, A. & Dora, C. How the low carbon economy can improve health. Br. Med. J. 344, e1018 (2012).
Co-Benefits to Health of Climate Change Mitigation. Transport Sector: Preliminary Findings. Initial Review (World Health Organization, 2010).
Non-systematic review of health co-benefits of transport policies to reduce carbon emissions.
Jacobson, M. Z. Effects of ethanol (E85) versus gasoline vehicles on cancer and mortality in the United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4150–4157 (2007).
Leinert, S., Daly, H., Hyde, B. & Gallachóir, B. Ó. Co-benefits? Not always: Quantifying the negative effect of a CO2-reducing car taxation policy on NOx emissions. Energy Policy 63, 1151–1159 (2013).
Woodcock, J., Givoni, M. & Morgan, A. S. Health impact modelling of active travel visions for england and wales using an integrated transport and health impact modelling tool (ITHIM). PLoS ONE 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051462 (2013).
Maizlish, N. et al. Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area. Am. J. Public Health 103, 703–709 (2013).
Grabow, M. L. et al. Air quality and exercise-related health benefits from reduced car travel in the midwestern United States. Environ. Health Perspect. 120, 68–76 (2012).
Lindsay, G., Macmillan, A. & Woodward, A. Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles: impact on health and emissions. Aust. NZ J. Public Health 35, 54–60 (2011).
Cifuentes, L., Borja-Aburto, V. H., Gouveia, N., Thurston, G. & Davis, D. L. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000–2020): Santiago, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and New York City. Environ. Health Perspect. 109(Suppl. 3), 419–425 (2001).
McKinley, G. et al. Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 1954–1961 (2005).
Working Group on Public Health and Fossil-Fuel Combustion. Short-term improvements in public health from global-climate policies on fossil-fuel combustion: an interim report. Lancet 350, 1341–1349 (1997).
Dessus, S. & O'Connor, D. Climate policy without tears: CGE-based ancillary benefits estimates for Chile. Environ. Resource Econ. 25, 287–317 (2003).
Jensen, H. T. et al. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Clim. Change 121, 223–237 (2013).
Macmillan, A. et al. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ. Health Perspect. 122, 335–344 (2014).
Dynamic modelling of health (injury, air pollution and physical activity) impacts and GHG emission reductions of five specific policy scenarios to improve cycling in Auckland, New Zealand.
Jarrett, J. et al. Effect of increasing active travel in urban England and Wales on costs to the National Health Service. Lancet 379, 2198–2205 (2012).
Dollery, B. & Hovey, M. Australian Federal Government failure: The rise and fall of the home insulation program. Econ. Pap. J. Appl. Econ. Policy 29, 342–352 (2010).
Telfar-Barnard, L. et al. The Impact of Retrofitted Insulation and New Heaters on Health Services Utilisation And Costs, Pharmaceutical Costs and Mortality: Evaluation of Warm Up New Zealand: Heat Smart (Ministry of Economic Development, Wellington, 2011).
Chi, G. et al. Gasoline prices and their relationship to drunk-driving crashes. Accid. Anal. Prev. 43, 194–203 (2011).
Socialdata and Sustrans. TravelSmart Lowestoft: Final report on the individualised travel marketing project in 2008–2009 (Socialdata and Sustrans, 2010).
Travelsmart in Watford: Final Report on the Individualised Travel Marketing Project in Watford 2008–2009 (Socialdata and Sustrans, 2010).
Travelsmart in Exeter: Final Report on the Individualised Travel Marketing Project in Exeter 2008–2009 (Socialdata and Sustrans, 2010).
Travelsmart in Lancashire: Final Report on the Individualised Travel Marketing Project in Preston, South Ribble and Lancaster 2006–2007 (Socialdata and Sustrans, 2008).
Travelsmart in Worle: Final Report on the Individualised Travel Marketing Project in Worle (September–October 2008) (Socialdata and Sustrans, 2009).
Haq, G., Whitelegg, J., Cinderby, S. & Johnson, D. Intelligent Travel: Personalised Travel Planning in the City of York (Environmental Institute Stockholm, 2004).
Individualised Marketing Travel Bahaviour Change Programme for the City of South Perth under the Travelsmart Programme (Socialdata Australia Pty Ltd, 2001).
Socialdata Australia Pty Ltd. Travel Behaviour Change Program for Parts of the Perth Metropolitan Area under the TravelSmart Program 2001 to 2005. Final report of TravelSmart® Households City of Melville (Department for Planning and Infrastructure, Perth, 2004).
Socialdata Australia Pty Ltd. Mobility Behaviour Melville 2000 (Socialdata, Perth, 2000).
Socialdata Australia Pty Ltd. Travel behaviour change for the City of South Perth under the TravelSmart Program:Technical Appendix (Department for Planning and Infrastructure, Perth, 2003).
Socialdata Australia Pty Ltd. TravelSmart Travel Surveys. Final report of TravelSmart Household — South Perth Monitoring Travel Surveys 2000 to 2004 (Department for Planning and Infrastructure, Perth, 2005).
Evaluation of Australian TravelSmart Projects in the ACT, South Australia, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia: 2001–2005 (Australian Greenhouse Office, 2005).
Johansson, C., Burman, L. & Forsberg, B. The effects of congestions tax on air quality and health. Atmos. Environ. 43, 4843–4854 (2009).
Well-conducted evaluation of Stockholm congestion charge, showing reduced air pollution mortality as a result.
Equity Effects of the Stockholm Trial (Transek, Stockholm, 2006).
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Stockholm Trial (Transek, Stockholm, 2006).
SLB Analysis. Evaluation of the Effects of the Stockholm Trial on Road Traffic (City of Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, and Stockholm and Uppsala County Air Quality Associations, 2006).
SLB Analysis. The Stockholm trial: Effects on air quality and health (City of Stockholm Environment and Health Administration, and Stockholm and Uppsala County Air Quality Associations, 2006).
Bergman, P., Grjibovski, A. M., Hagstromer, M., Patterson, E. & Sjostrom, M. Congestion road tax and physical activity. Am. J. Prev. Med. 38, 171–177 (2010).
Shoup, D. Evaluating the effects of cashing out employer-paid parking: Eight case studies. Transport Policy 4 (1997).
Shoup, D. Evaluating the Effect of Parking Cash Out: Eight Case Studies (California Air Resouces Board, 1997).
Sloman, L. et al. The Effects of Smarter Choice Programmes in the Sustainable Travel Towns: Research Report (Department for Transport, London, 2010).
Sloman, L. et al. The Effects of Smarter Choice Programmes in the Sustainable Travel Towns: Summary Report (Department for Transport, London, 2010).
Jepson, R. G., Harris, F. M., Platt, S. & Tannahill, C. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews. BMC Public Health 10, 538 (2010).
Ault, A. P., Moore, M. J., Furutani, H. & Prather, K. A. Impact of emissions from the Los Angeles port region on San Diego air quality during regional transport events. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 3500–3506 (2009).
Success Stories Within the Road Transport Sector on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission and Producing Ancillary Benefits (European Environment Agency, 2008).
Hansell, A. L. et al. Aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near Heathrow airport in London: small area study. Br. Med. J. 347, f5432 (2013).
Ogilvie, F. & Goodman, A. Inequalities in usage of a public bicycle sharing scheme: socio-demographic predictors of uptake and usage of the London (UK) cycle hire scheme. Prev. Med. 55, 40–45 (2012).
Fuller, D. et al. Use of a new public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Am. J. Prev. Med. 41, 80–83 (2011).
CSDH. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (World Health Organization, 2008).
Rose, G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int. J. Epidemiol. 30, 427–432 (2001).
Sahlqvist, S., Goodman, A., Cooper, A. R., Ogilvie, D. & iConnect consortium. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Activity 10, 28 (2013).
Smith, L. et al. Is a change in mode of travel to school associated with a change in overall physical activity levels in children? Longitudinal results from the SPEEDY study. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Activity 9, 134 (2012).
Manual for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Benefits of Global Environment Facility Transport Projects (ITDP, for the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the Global Environment Facility, 2010).
Druckman, A., Chitnis, M., Sorrell, S. & Jackson, T. Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households. Energy Policy 39, 3572–3581 (2011).
Craig, P. et al. Using natural experiments to evaluate population health interventions: new Medical Research Council guidance. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 66, 1182–1186 (2012).
Guidance on how to conduct robust evaluations of natural experiments.
West, S. G. et al. Alternatives to the randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Public Health 98, 1359–1366 (2008).
Cousens, S. et al. Alternatives to randomisation in the evaluation of public-health interventions: statistical analysis and causal inference. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 65, 576–581 (2011).
Edwards, P. et al. Health impacts of free bus travel for young people: evaluation of a natural experiment in London. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 67, 641–647 (2013).
Goodman, A., Panter, J., Sharp, S. J. & Ogilvie, D. Effectiveness and equity impacts of town-wide cycling initiatives in England: a longitudinal, controlled natural experimental study. Soc. Sci. Med. 97, 228–237 (2013).
MacDonald, J. M., Stokes, R. J., Cohen, D. A., Kofner, A. & Ridgeway, G. K. The effect of light rail transit on body mass index and physical activity. Am. J. Prev. Med 39, 105–112 (2010).
Moser, G. & Bamberg, S. The effectiveness of soft transport policy measures: A critical assessment and meta-analysis of empirical evidence. J. Environ. Psychol. 28, 10–26 (2008).
Bonsall, P. Do we know whether personal travel planning really works? Transport Policy 16, 306–314 (2009).
Howden-Chapman, P. et al. Effect of insulating existing houses on health inequality: cluster randomised study in the community. Br. Med. J. 334, 460 (2007).
Fong, G. T. et al. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project. Tob. Control 15 (Suppl. 3), iii3–iii11 (2006).
Rojas-Rueda, D., de Nazelle, A., Tainio, M. & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study. Br. Med. J. 343, d4521 (2011).
Woodcock, J., Tainio, M., Cheshire, J., O'Brien, O. & Goodman, A. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study. Br. Med. J. 348, g425 (2014).
Eyles, H., Ni Mhurchu, C., Nghiem, N. & Blakely, T. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies. PLoS Med. 9, e1001353 (2012).
Shemilt, I. et al. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review. PLoS ONE 8, e75070 (2013).
Caro, J. J., Briggs, A. H., Siebert, U., Kuntz, K. M. & ISPOR-SMDM task force. Modeling good research practices. Overview: A report of the ISPOR-SMDM Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force. 1. Value Health: J. Int. Soc. Pharmacoecon. Outcomes Res. 15, 796–803 (2012).
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G. & The, P. G. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 6, e1000097 (2009).
Ogilvie, D., Egan, M., Hamilton, V. & Petticrew, M. Systematic reviews of health effects of social interventions: 2. Best available evidence: how low should you go? J. Epidemiol. Community Health 59, 886–892 (2005).
Ogilvie, D., Hamilton, V., Egan, M. & Petticrew, M. Systematic reviews of health effects of social interventions: 1. Finding the evidence: how far should you go? J . Epidemiol. Community Health 59, 804–808 (2005).
McCartney, G. et al. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: Systematic review (1978–2008). Br. Med. J. 340, c2369 (2010).
Thomas, B. H., Ciliska, D., Dobbins, M. & Micucci, S. A process for systematically reviewing the literature: Providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews Evidence-based Nursing 1, 176–184 (2004).
Thomas, H. Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. (McMaster Univ., Toronto).
Armijo-Olivo, S., Stiles, C. R., Hagen, N. A., Biondo, P. D. & Cummings, G. G. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool and the effective public health practice project quality assessment tool: Methodological research. J. Eval. Clin. Practice 18, 12–18 (2012).