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Arctic shipping and marine invaders


The emergence of new Arctic trade routes will probably change the global dynamics of invasive species, potentially affecting marine habitats and ecosystem functions, especially in coastal regions.

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Figure 1: Annual transits of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) during the period 2009–2013.
Figure 2: Annual transits of the Panama and Suez canals during the period 2003–2012.


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We dedicate this paper to Jim Carlton, who continues to inspire and advance a deeper understanding of the ecology, impact and management of invasions. We thank Mark Minton, Ian Davidson, Oliver Floerl, Richard Everett and Bella Galil for contributing ideas and materials.

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Correspondence to A. Whitman Miller.

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Miller, A., Ruiz, G. Arctic shipping and marine invaders. Nature Clim Change 4, 413–416 (2014).

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