Consequences of widespread tree mortality triggered by drought and temperature stress


Forests provide innumerable ecological, societal and climatological benefits, yet they are vulnerable to drought and temperature extremes. Climate-driven forest die-off from drought and heat stress has occurred around the world, is expected to increase with climate change and probably has distinct consequences from those of other forest disturbances. We examine the consequences of drought- and climate-driven widespread forest loss on ecological communities, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and land–climate interactions. Furthermore, we highlight research gaps that warrant study. As the global climate continues to warm, understanding the implications of forest loss triggered by these events will be of increasing importance.

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Figure 1: Images of climate-induced forest die-off from around the world.
Figure 2: Fluxes of radiation, water and carbon before and after widespread forest die-off.
Figure 3: Global distribution of studies documenting climate-induced widespread forest die-off events and consequences, from the English language scientific literature.


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We thank D. Karp, H. Mooney, T. E. Kolb, L. Oakes, C. Allen, M. Zeppel, J. Berry and C. Field for discussion of the concepts and comments on the manuscript. J.M.K. was supported in part by the Science Foundation of Arizona and the Achievement Rewards for College Students Foundation. W.R.L.A. was supported in part by an award from the Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowship (DOE SCGF) programme. The DOE SCGF programme was made possible in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The DOE SCGF programme is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) for the DOE. ORISE is managed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) under DOE contract number DE-AC05-06OR23100. All opinions expressed in this paper are the authors' and do not necessarily reflect the policies and views of the DOE, ORAU, or ORISE.

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Anderegg, W., Kane, J. & Anderegg, L. Consequences of widespread tree mortality triggered by drought and temperature stress. Nature Clim Change 3, 30–36 (2013).

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