Mitigating climate change requires directed innovation efforts to develop and deploy energy technologies. Innovation activities are directed towards the outcome of climate protection by public institutions, policies and resources that in turn shape market behaviour. We analyse diverse indicators of activity throughout the innovation system to assess these efforts. We find efficient end-use technologies contribute large potential emission reductions and provide higher social returns on investment than energy-supply technologies. Yet public institutions, policies and financial resources pervasively privilege energy-supply technologies. Directed innovation efforts are strikingly misaligned with the needs of an emissions-constrained world. Significantly greater effort is needed to develop the full potential of efficient end-use technologies.
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We acknowledge the many useful discussions with our fellow authors of the Global Energy Assessment chapter on the Energy Technology Innovation System11: Francisco Aguayo, Leon Clarke, Laura Diaz Anadon, Marko Hekkert, Kejun Jiang, Daniel Kammen, Ruud Kempener, Osamu Kimura, Bernadette Kiss, Lynn Mytelka, Lena Neij and Anastasia O'Rourke.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Wilson, C., Grubler, A., Gallagher, K. et al. Marginalization of end-use technologies in energy innovation for climate protection. Nature Clim Change 2, 780–788 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1576
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