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Living in the doughnut

Kate Raworth, a senior researcher at the aid charity Oxfam, has created a doughnut-shaped concept for achieving 11 societal goals within the framework of 9 planetary boundaries. She talks to Nature Climate Change about a safe and just operating space for humanity.

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Figure 1: The doughnut-shaped area represents an environmentally safe and socially just space for humanity.


  1. Raworth, K. A Safe and Just Space for Humanity: Can We Live Within the Doughnut? Oxfam Discussion Paper (Oxfam, 2012); available via

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  2. Rockström, J. et al. Nature 461, 472–475 (2009).

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Vince, G. Living in the doughnut. Nature Clim Change 2, 225–226 (2012).

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